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Table 2 Characteristics of the nine selected studies

From: Do mass media campaigns improve physical activity? a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author (Year) Bauman (A) (2003) [14] Bauman (B) (2003) [15] Craig (2007) [16] Hillsdon (2001) [17] Hopman-Rock (2005) [18] Lorentzen (2007) [19] Reger-Nash (2005) [20] Reger-Nash (2006) [22] Reger-Nash (2008) [21]
Country Australia New Zealand Canada UK Netherlands Norway US US US
Campaign name Active Australia Campaign Push Play Campaign Canada On the Move Active For Life Nether-lands On the Move Romsas in Motion Wheeling Walks BC Walks WV Walks
Campaign year 1997-1999 1999-2000 2004 1996-1998 2000 2000-2003 2001-2002 2003 2005
Evaluation design Before-After, comparing the state with the rest of Australia Before-After Before-After Cohort Cohort Before-After Study, with comparison town Before-after surveys: with comparison town Before-after surveys Broome County compared to Chautauqua Before-after: NC West Virginia compared to Cabell County
Target population; Mean BMI 18-75 year olds; ≥18 year olds; 18+ year olds; 28.5 kg/m2 16-74 year olds; ≥35 year olds; 30 - 67 year olds; 27.1 kg/m2 50-65 year olds, sedentary at baseline; 28.0 kg/m2 40-65 year olds, insufficiently active adults; 28.9 kg/m2 40-65 year olds, insufficiently active adults
Overall sample Size 5015 665 9935 3189 988 2644 1472 949 1834
Intervention sample size 2009 NR NR NR NR NR 719 575 1223
Control sample size 3006 NR NR NR NR NR 753 374 611
Age (mean/ median, in years) 44.4 45.9 42.5 47.2 56.0 49.0 57.0 52.4 NR
Proportion of males, % 44.3 45.9 33 42.5 31 44.5 33 31 33
Duration of intervention 8 weeks 24 months (in phases) 12 months 3 years 7 months 18 weeks in phases 12 months 8 weeks 8 weeks
Duration of follow-up 2 years 3 years 1 year 3 years 7 months 3 years 2 years 8 weeks 8 weeks
Scope Statewide National National National National Local Local Local Regional
Coverage 65% 61-88% 11-31% 38% 54% 46% 90% 78% 87%
Campaign description 200 showings of TV ads;
6 weeks of print ads in newspapers, magazines, mail-outs to professionals, counseling kits, marketing of campaign merchandise; Campaign approach was to make physical activity (PA) a social norm
TV, Radio, Print and Outdoor;
National Push Play Day was implemented; Campaign approach was to make physical activity (PA) a social norm
Electronic & Print;
2 million free pedometers distributed free; Campaign approach was to provide incentives for PA
TV & Print
Magazine ads.
Road-shows, workplace promotions, competitions, media advocacy; Campaign approach was for celebrities to encourage PA in the population
TV Show broadcast for 15 mins twice daily on week-days; Campaign approach was the use of risk message and to make PA a social norm Outdoor ads especially leaflets, local meetings, stands, local television, radio, newspapers, posters. Campaign approach was to make PA a social norm 1164 TV ads, and 14 quarter-page newspaper ads; radio and cable TV as well
Others: a worksite walking challenge, website, physician prescriptions, community presentations about the health benefits of walking
Campaign approach was to make PA a social norm
953 TV ads, 1645 radio ads, 10 quarter-page ads in newspapers, 1314 cable TV ads.
Participants encouraged to log their PA on a website; was to make PA a social norm
356 TV ads, 1763 radio ads, 39 1/8 page newspaper ads, 4256 cable TV ads
Intergenerational walk to foster social networks for regular walking; Residents to log their PA on web site;
Campaign approach was to make PA a social norm
Quality Score (out of 5) 4 2 3 2 2 2 4 4 4
  1. NR: Not reported