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Table 3 Overview of planned methods and applications

From: Development of a theory- and evidence-based intervention to enhance implementation of physical therapy guidelines for the management of low back pain

Theories Theoretical method Determinants Practical applications Objective
• Active learning theory [24, 25] • Information transfer • Knowledge Individual PT and PQM Individual PT and PQM
    • Brief lectures • Get acquainted with self-regulation
• Knowledge about the content of the guidelines and measurement instruments
PQM
• Get acquainted with management process
• Get acquainted with management tools
• Elaboration likelihood • Active information processing • Knowledge Individual PT and PQM Individual PT and PQM
Model [26] • Cooperative learning • Attitude (guideline characteristics and affective determinants) • Small group sessions with peers and practice • Attitude building about guideline – what does the patient gain?
• Active learning theory [24, 25] • Environmental re- evaluation • Social norms • Plenary discussions • How do colleagues think about the guideline?
• Transtheoretical model [27] • Social influence    • Better processing of new knowledge
• Theory of planned behavior [28] • Discussion    
• Self regulation [19, 29] • Self monitoring • Awareness Individual PT and PQM Individual PT
• Transtheoretical model [27] • Conciousness raising   • Home-work assignment • Comparing a patient record with the recommendations in the guideline for low back pain
• Precaution adoption     PQM
Process model [30] • Personalizing ‘risk’    • Assessment of practice organization and practice change culture
  • Organizational reflection    
• Goal setting theory [22] • Goal setting • Outcome Individual PT Individual PT and PQM
  • Participation • Expectations • Home work assignment • Choosing points for improvement
• Cooperative • Self-efficacy • Small group work with peers • Formulate SMART individual and collective goals
• learning • Intention   PQM
• Discussion • Commitment Individual PT and PQM • Leading a meeting to set goals for improvement
• Small group work with practice • Setting SMART collective goals
• Feedback • Skills • Plenary discussion with peer and expert feedback  
•Implementation intentions [23] • Implementation intentions • Outcome expectations Individual PT Individual PT
• Develop a personal • Describe the SMART goals and the strategies to achieve them
•Active learning theory [24, 25] • Planning coping responses • Self-efficacy • Development plan (PDP)  
  • Intention PQM PQM
• Feedback • Skills • Develop a practice quality improvement plan (PQIP) • Describe the SMART goals and the management steps to take to achieve them
Individual PT and PQM • Describe the necessary means
• Plenary presentation with peer and expert feedback of • Estimate the costs
the PDP’s and the PQIP’s • Make a risk analysis
•Active learning theory [24, 25] • Active learning • Self-efficacy Individual PT and PQM Individual PT
• Home-work assignment with expert and peer feedback • Implement one of your goals
•Social constructivism [31, 32] • Guided practice • Skills   PQM
• Achieve quick wins
Self regulation [19, 29] • Evaluation • Skills Individual PT and PQM Individual PT and PQM
• Organizational diagnosis/monitor-ring   • Home-work assignment • Evaluate if the intended change was achieved and why (not)
   • Small group work with peers  
•Goal setting theory [22] • Action planning • Commitment Individual PT and PQM Individual PT and PQM
•Implementation intentions [23] • Participation • Intention • Home-work assignment • Make a plan for continuation of the process
• Small group work with practice • How do colleagues deal with barriers for implementation?
• Plenary presentation with peer and expert feedback  
•Social cognitive theory [33] • Vicarious learning • Self-efficacy Individual PT and PQM Individual PT and PQM
• Modeling • Skills • Meet the expert session • Improve self-efficacy and skills about handling psychosocial factors
  1. PT = Physical Therapist; PQM = Practice Quality Manager; SMART = Specific, Measurable, Acceptable, Realistic, Time specific.