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Table 3 Evidence synthesis

From: Adherence influencing factors – a systematic review of systematic reviews

Factor Relationship
Indication/therapy Effect direction Evidence for effect
Social and economic
Education Chronic pain O +
  Parkinson O
  Heart failure* O O
  Oral cancer therapy O
Employed Inflammatory arthritis O +
Ethnic status Parkinson Ethnic minorities < others +
  Inflammatory arthritis White > others +
  Oral cancer therapy Non-white > others O
Financial status/income Parkinson -
  Heart failure* O - -
  Oral cancer therapy O
Married/not living alone Parkinson -
  Oral cancer therapy O
Social support Heart failure* O
  Inflammatory arthritis O
Therapy related
Duration of therapy Oral cancer therapy O
Frequency of intake Parkinson O
  Heart failure* O - -
  Inflammatory arthritis O - -
Number of pills taken per day Heart failure* O O
Different medications Chronic pain O
  Parkinson O
  Inflammatory arthritis O
  Oral cancer therapy O
  Heart failure* O +
Taking medication at meals Oral cancer therapy O
Disease related
Duration of disease Chronic pain O - -
  Inflammatory arthritis -
  Oral cancer therapy O
Patient related
Age Chronic pain O
  Parkinson +
  Heart failure* +
   35-56 > others +
  Inflammatory arthritis O
   55-64 > others +
  Hemophilia O
  Oral cancer therapy O
Comorbidity (not specified) Inflammatory arthritis O
Comorbidity (physical) Heart failure* O
Comorbidity (mental) Parkinson O
  Heart failure* +
Gender (female) Chronic pain +
  Heart failure* O
  Oral cancer therapy O
Health care system factors
Co-payments Inflammatory arthritis +
  Not restricted ++
  Oral cancer therapy O
Medication costs Inflammatory arthritis +
  Oral cancer therapy O
  1. Effect direction.
  2. ↑: positive (all studies showed a positive effect on adherence); ↓: negative (all studies showed a negative effect on adherence); ↕: heterogenic (i.e. at least one study showed a contrary effect direction); O: unclear reported/ not reported.
  3. Evidence for effect.
  4. ++: clear effect.
  5. +: tendency of effect.
  6. --: no effect.
  7. -: tendency of no effect.
  8. O: unclear effect.
  9. *Inclusion criteria for studies: ≥50% of population are heart failure patients.