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Table 1 Characteristics and rates of low birth weight among under five children, Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys, 2006 and 2011(N = 2845)

From: Role of antenatal care and iron supplementation during pregnancy in preventing low birth weight in Nepal: comparison of national surveys 2006 and 2011

Factors Total [%] LBW n [%]# Unadjusted odds ratio
Survey years   P = 0.33 P = 0.33
2006 923 (32.4) 108 (13.2) 1.00
2011 1922 (67.6) 235 (11.5) 0.855 (0.623-1.173)
Gestational factors
Sex of infant   P = 0.387 P = 0.387
Male 1484 (52.2) 171 (11.4) 1.00
Female 1361 (47.8) 172 (12.8) 1.143 ( 0.844-1.548)
Mother’s age   P = 0.157 P = 0.144
15-19 years 259 (9.1) 47 (16.7) 1.552 (1.026-2.348)
20-32 years 2346 (82.5) 269 (11.5) 1.00
32 and higher 240 (8.4) 27 (12.6) 1.119 (0.641-1.955)
Parity   P = 0.166 P = 0.160
First 1448 (50.9) 190 (13.3) 1.00
Second or third 1152 (40.5) 124 (10.6) 0.771 (0.588-1.009)
Fourth or more 245 (8.6) 29 (11.1) 0.813 (0.486-1.362)
Proximate factors
Body mass index   P = 0.017 P = 0.025
< 18.5 (Underweight) 291(16.0) 42 (13.6) 0.931 (0.595-1.457)
18.5-23.0 (Normal) 980 (53.7) 132 (14.5) 1.00
> 23.0 (Overweight) 553 (30.3) 46 (8.3) 0.533 (0.339-0.837)
Birth interval   P = 0.222 P = 0.229
No previous birth 1526 (53.6) 195 (13.0) 1.00
< 24 months 516 (18.1) 64 (12.0) 0.921 (0.641-1.298)
> = 24 months 803 (28.2) 84 (10.2) 0.757 (0.550-1.040)
Antenatal care   P < 0.001 P < 0.001
No ANC visit 514 (18.1) 85 (18.3) 2.079 (1.511-2.859)
1-3 ANC visit 541 (19.0) 74 (13.5) 1.443 (1.015-2.053)
4 or more ANC visit 1790 (62.9) 184 (9.7) 1.00
Iron consumption during pregnancy   P < 0.001 P = 0.001
No/Do not know 635 (22.3) 100 (16.8) 1.678 (1.255-2.244)
Yes 2210 (77.7) 243 (10.7) 1.00
Smoking   P = 0.746 P = 0.736
No 2776 (97.6) 335 (12.0) 1.00
Yes 69 (2.4) 8 (13.7) 1.165 (0.477-2.850)
Use of fuel   P = 0.029 P = 0.030
Relatively non polluting 866 (30.4) 79 (9.3) 1.00
Relatively highly polluting 1979 (69.6) 264 (13.2) 1.494 (1.040-2.146)
Underlying factors
Wealth index   P = 0.576 P = 0.568
Poorest 281 (9.9) 41 (15.9) 1.00
Poor 359 (12.6) 43 (12.3) 0.759 (0.447-1.289)
Middle 453 (15.9) 67 (12.4) 0.747 (0.455-1.226)
Richer 686 (24.1) 78 (11.2) 0.663 (0.400-1.099)
Richest 1066 (37.5) 114 (11.5) 0.684 (0.430-1.090)
Maternal education   P = 0.018 P = 0.021
No education 664 (23.3) 83 (10.6) 1.151 (0.627-2.112)
Primary 512 (18.0) 85 (17.2) 2.011 (1.094-3.695)
Secondary 1291 (45.4) 141 (11.5) 1.251 (0.736-2.126)
Higher 378 (13.3) 34 (9.4) 1.00
Women’s decision making for health   P = 0.022 P = 0.030
Women 649 (22.8) 55 (8.8) 1.00
Women and husband together 992 (34.9) 110 (11.8) 1.386 (0.927-2.071)
Husband or others 1204 (42.3) 178 (14.1) 1.701 (1.146-2.526)
Ethnicity   P = 0.541 P = 0.550
Relatively advantaged 1620 (57.0) 190 (12.0) 1.00
Relatively disadvantaged(Janjati) 813 (28.6) 93 (11.4) 0.949 (0.690-1.304)
Relatively disadvantaged (Dalit) 411 (14.5) 60 (14.0) 1.202 (0.830-1.743)
Place of residence   P = 0.943 P = 0.943
Urban 1175 (41.3) 136 (12.0) 1.00
Rural 1670 (58.7) 207 (12.1) 1.011 (0.751-1.360)
Ecological region   P = 0.995 P = 0.997
Mountain 261 (9.2) 28 (12.2) 1.00
Hill 1112 (39.1) 138 (12.0) 0.982 (0.595-1.619)
Terai 1472 (51.7) 177 (12.1) 0.983 (0.603-1.605)
Development region   P = 0.022 P = 0.028
Eastern 647 (22.7) 90 (15.3) 1.700 (1.142-2.530)
Central 753 (26.5) 80 (9.6) 1.00
Western 554 (19.5) 60 (10.8) 1.137 (0.722-1.791)
Mid-western 470 (16.5) 51 (11.4) 1.208 ( 0.733-1.993)
Far-western 421 (14.8) 62 (16.7) 1.892 (1.179-3.035)
  1. # the percent indicates for the row total of independent variables, the percentage shows the weighted percent therefore it may not be equal to raw percent, the p value indicates the probability value of chi square test.