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Table 2 Linear regression analyses of log-transformed specific-gravity adjusted phthalate metabolites and intake frequency of daily foods

From: Dietary intake and phthalates body burden in boys and girls

Phthalate metabolites Food types Crude analysis Adjusted analysis a
B (95% CI) p-value B (95% CI) p-value
MBP -Sea food 0.105 (0.025 to 0.185) 0.010* 0.089 (0.001 to 0.176) 0.048*
-Dried fruits and vegetables 0.061 (-0.019 to 0.142) 0.135 -0.130 (-0.224 to -0.036) 0.007*
MMP -Light color vegetable -0.030 (-0.096 to 0.036) 0.365 -0.124 (-0.120 to -0.048) 0.001*
-Luncheon meats or processed meats 0.100 (0.030 to 0.169) 0.005* 0.116 (0.027 to 0.205) 0.011*
-Lactic acid beverages -0.002 (-0.056 to 0.051) 0.928 -0.065 (-0.125 to -0.004) 0.038*
MEP -Preserved food -0.130 (-0.244 to -0.015) 0.027* -0.161 (-0.313 to -0.010) 0.037*
MEHP -Eggs -0.100 (-0.187 to -0.014) 0.023* -0.143 (-0.237 to -0.048) 0.003*
-Freshwater fish 0.081 (-0.009 to 0.172) 0.078 0.138 (0.035 to 0.241) 0.009*
-Fried food -0.019 (-0.121 to 0.083) 0.717 -0.154 (-0.285 to -0.022) 0.022*
MEHHP -Light color vegetable 0.023 (-0.054 to 0.100) 0.056 -0.095 (-0.175 to -0.015) 0.020*
-Fresh fruits 0.144 (0.063 to 0.225) 0.000* 0.092 (0.007 to 0.177) 0.034*
-Eggs -0.066 (-0.141 to 0.009) 0.085 -0.091 (-0.168 to -0.015) 0.020*
-Freshwater fish 0.066 (-0.013 to 0.145) 0.100 0.119 (0.034 to 0.203) 0.006*
-Lactic acid beverages 0.030 (-0.033 to 0.093) 0.352 -0.068 (-0.131 to -0.004) 0.038*
MEOHP -Light color vegetable 0.021 (-0.049 to 0.091) 0.556 -0.090 (-0.162 to -0.018) 0.014*
-Fresh fruits 0.145 (0.071 to 0.219) 0.000* 0.096 (0.020 to 0.173) 0.013*
-Eggs -0.060 (-0.129 to 0.008) 0.085 -0.092 (-0.161 to -0.024) 0.008*
-Freshwater fish 0.076 (0.003 to 0.148) 0.040* 0.125 (0.049 to 0.101) 0.001*
-Soft drinks 0.135 (0.066 to 0.203) 0.000* 0.098 (0.025 to 0.171) 0.009*
-Lactic acid beverages 0.025 (-0.032 to 0.083) 0.386 -0.067 (-0.124 to -0.009) 0.023*
∑MEHP b -Light color vegetable 0.031 (-0.042 to 0.104) 0.408 -0.085 (-0.160 to -0.010) 0.026*
-Fresh fruits 0.145 (0.069 to 0.222) 0.000* 0.091 (0.012 to 0.171) 0.024*
-Eggs -0.069 (-0.140 to 0.003) 0.059 -0.101 (-0.172 to -0.030) 0.006*
-Freshwater fish 0.073 (-0.002 to 0.148) 0.055 0.129 (0.050 to 0.208) 0.001*
-Soft drinks 0.132 (0.061 to 0.204) 0.000* 0.088 (0.012 to 0.164) 0.023*
-Lactic acid beverages 0.030 (-0.030 to 0.090) 0.324 -0.069 (-0.129 to -0.009) 0.023*
  1. *p < 0.05.
  2. aAdjusted for age, gender, BMI, parents’ average education level, parents’ smoking condition, parents’ alcohol consumption, guardians who fill in the parental questionnaire, and the other 24 types of food intake.
  3. bsum of MEHP, MEHHP and MEOHP, as DEHP-related metabolites.