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Table 1 Reports implicating drains as the source of outbreaks

From: Drainage systems, an occluded source of sanitation related outbreaks

Microorganism Reservoir Location References
SARS Dry U-traps Community, Amoy Garden, Hong Kong WHO [8]
Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Faulty drains Hospital-wide and medical unit, England Breathnach et al. [7]
Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae Sink drains ICU, Melbourne, Australia Kotsanas et al. [9]
Several different fungi Drains in bathrooms Drains in kitchen sinks Community, Osaka, Japan Hamada et al. [10]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sink drains Whirlpool drains ICU at Burn hospital, Cincinnati, OH Edmonds et al. [11]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sink drains Medical-Surgical ICU, Chicago, IL Levin et al. [12]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Toilets Out patients, Tübingen, Germany Döring et al. [13]
Fusarium spp. Plumbing drains 131 buildings from 8 states, US Short et al. [6]
extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae Sink drains Cardiac-Surgical ICU, France Kac et al. [14]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sink drains Hematology unit, Lund, Sweden Dagens Nyheter [15]
ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae Sink drains Neurosurgical ICU, Uppsala, Sweden Starlander et al. [5]
Klebsiella pneumonia Carbapenem resistant Sink drains ICU, Sørlandet, Norway Tofteland et al. [16]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Drains ICU, Edinburgh, UK Gillespie et al. [17]
ESBL Enterobacteriaceae Sink drains ICU, Tours, France Roux et al. [18]
Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa Unsealed drain Urology ward, Barcelona, Spain Peña et al. [19]
P. aeruginosa with unusual antibiogram Drains Neurosurgery ICU, Clichy, France Bert et al. [20]
ESBL Klebsiella oxytoca Sink drains Hospital, Toronto, Canada Lowe et al. [21]
Foot Mouth Disease virus Leaking drains Community, Pirbright, UK HSE [22]
P. aeruginosa Grooved drainage design Haemotology, Singapore Ling and How [23]
Carbapenem resistant Klebsiella oxytoca Drainpipes, traps ICU, Spain Vergeres -Lopez et al. [24]