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Table 1 Characteristics of participants

From: Dietary quality and its structural relationships among equivalent income, emotional well-being, and a five-year subjective health in Japanese middle-aged urban dwellers

  Men Women
  40 ~ 49 years 50 ~ 59 years 60 ~ 64 years p 40 ~ 49 years 50 ~ 59 years 60 ~ 64 years p
    n = 298 (26.8 %) n = 505 (45.4 %) n = 309 (27.8 %)   n = 373 (26.7 %) n = 611 (43.8 %) n = 411 (29.5 %)  
Socioeconomic status (SES)                
Equivalent income (03EI) <1 million yen n (%) 35 11.7 % 69 13.7 % 62 20.1 % *** 78 20.9 % 143 23.4 % 136 33.1 % ***
1million-3million yen   94 31.5 % 164 32.5 % 157 50.8 %   125 33.5 % 234 38.3 % 180 43.8 %  
3million-5million yen 116 38.9 % 147 29.1 % 52 16.8 % 105 28.2 % 140 22.9 % 67 16.3 %
5million-7million yen 50 16.8 % 99 19.6 % 23 7.4 % 61 16.4 % 79 12.9 % 18 4.4 %
>7million yen   3 1.0 % 26 5.1 % 15 4.9 % 4 1.1 % 15 2.5 % 10 2.4 %
Family structure Single n (%) 40 13.5 % 58 11.5 % 37 12.1 % *** 22 5.9 % 49 8.0 % 54 13.1 % ***
Husband and wife 25 8.4 % 86 17.0 % 83 27.0 % 27 7.2 % 106 17.4 % 127 30.9 %
  Parents-and-children 123 41.4 % 192 38.0 % 92 30.0 % 174 46.6 % 243 39.8 % 122 29.7 %
  Others 109 36.7 % 169 33.5 % 95 30.9 % 150 40.2 % 212 34.8 % 108 26.3 %
Employment patterns Full‐time n (%) 261 87.6 % 431 85.9 % 194 63.0 % *** 165 44.4 % 255 41.9 % 118 28.7 % ***
Part-time 21 7.0 % 44 8.8 % 54 17.5 % 128 34.4 % 208 34.2 % 126 30.7 %
  Full‐time housewife 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 68 18.3 % 125 20.5 % 128 31.1 %
  Out of employment 16 5.4 % 27 5.4 % 60 19.5 % 11 3.0 % 21 3.4 % 39 9.5 %
Dietary quality (03DQ)                
Dietary content PFDS mean ± SD* 18.4 ± 3.3 (10.0-28.0) 17.6 ± 3.4 (8.0-26.0) 17.5 ± 3.4 (10.0-26.0) ** 20.0 ± 3.4 (10.0-28.0) 19.3 ± 3.3 (10.0-26.0) 19.1 ± 3.4 (9.0-26.0) ***
Eating behavior Eating behavior score mean ± SD* 4.9 ± 1.4 (0.0-8.0) 5.1 ± 1.4 (1.0-8.0) 5.3 ± 1.2 (1.0-8.0) *** 6.2 ± 1.3 (1.0-8.0) 6.2 ± 1.2 (2.0-8.0) 6.3 ± 1.2 (1.0-8.0) n.s
Desirable eating behavior 2.2 ± 1.2 (0.0-5.0) 2.4 ± 1.2 (0.0-5.0) 2.6 ± 1.0 (0.0-5.0) *** 3.4 ± 1.1 (0.0-5.0) 3.5 ± 1.0 (0.0-5.0) 3.5 ± 1.0 (0.0-5.0) n.s
  Undesirable eating behavior 2.7 ± 0.6 (0.0-3.0) 2.7 ± 0.6 (0.0-3.0) 2.8 ± 0.6 (0.0-3.0) n.s 2.8 ± 0.5 (0.0-3.0) 2.8 ± 0.5 (0.0-3.0) 2.8 ± 0.5 (0.0-3.0) n.s
Emotional well-being (03EWB)                
Enjoyment & ikigai 0 n (%) 22 7.4 % 44 8.7 % 17 5.5 % n.s 13 3.5 % 22 3.6 % 13 3.2 % n.s
1 39 13.1 % 68 13.5 % 42 13.6 % 33 8.8 % 51 8.3 % 33 8.0 %
2 74 24.8 % 109 21.6 % 79 25.6 % 70 18.8 % 118 19.3 % 70 17.0 %
3 153 51.3 % 270 53.5 % 160 51.8 % 230 61.7 % 383 62.7 % 281 68.4 %
4 5 1.7 % 12 2.4 % 10 3.2 % 19 5.1 % 27 4.4 % 9 2.2 %
5 3 1.0 % 1 0.2 % 1 0.32 % 7 1.9 % 9 1.5 % 5 1.2 %
  6 2 0.7 % 1 0.2 % 0 0 % 1 0.3 % 1 0.2 % 0 0 %
  Enjoyment & ikigai score mean ± SD* 2.3 ± 1.0 (0.0-6.0) 2.3 ± 1.0 (0.0-6.0) 2.3 ± 1.0 (0.0-5.0) n.s 2.6 ± 0.9 (0.0-6.0) 2.6 ± 0.9 (0.0-6.0) 2.6 ± 0.8 (0.0-5.0) n.s
Close people Many close people n (%) 30 10.1 % 45 9.0 % 23 7.5 % n.s 44 11.9 % 54 8.9 % 31 7.5 % n.s
  Several close people 160 53.7 % 277 55.3 % 162 52.9 % 247 66.6 % 425 69.8 % 283 68.9 %
  Almost no close person 78 26.2 % 147 29.3 % 85 27.8 % 71 19.1 % 100 16.4 % 76 18.5 %
No close person 30 10.1 % 32 6.4 % 36 11.8 % 9 2.4 % 30 4.9 % 21 5.1 %
  Close people score mean ± SD* 2.6 ± 0.8 (1.0-4.0) 2.7 ± 0.7 (1.0-4.0) 2.6 ± 0.8 (1.0-4.0) n.s 2.9 ± 0.6 (1.0-4.0) 2.8 ± 0.6 (1.0-4.0) 2.8 ± 0.6 (1.0-4.0) n.s
Five-year subjective health (5yrSH)                
Subjective health (SH) in 2003 Healthy n (%) 93 31.4 % 163 32.5 % 96 31.7 % n.s 123 33.0 % 177 29.2 % 118 29.1 % n.s
Somewhat healthy 163 55.1 % 274 54.7 % 178 58.7 % 207 55.5 % 358 59.0 % 226 55.8 %
Somewhat unhealthy 29 9.8 % 46 9.2 % 23 7.6 % 35 9.4 % 55 9.1 % 37 9.1 %
Unhealthy 11 3.7 % 18 3.6 % 6 2.0 % 8 2.1 % 17 2.8 % 24 5.9 %
Subjective health (SH) in 2008 Healthy n (%) 86 29.1 % 146 29.1 % 107 34.7 % n.s 99 27.0 % 149 24.5 % 112 27.3 % n.s
Somewhat healthy 170 57.4 % 284 56.7 % 169 54.9 % 212 57.9 % 383 63.0 % 241 58.8 %
Somewhat unhealthy 34 11.5 % 48 9.6 % 26 8.4 % 48 13.1 % 62 10.2 % 38 9.3 %
  Unhealthy 6 2.0 % 23 4.6 % 6 1.9 % 7 1.9 % 14 2.3 % 19 4.6 %
  1. Items of enjoyment & ikigai: Exercise and sports, hobby, trip, working or study, relaxing with family, children’s growth, communicating with friends, activities in area or with another groups
  2. PFDS Principle food groups diversity score Chi-square test, n.s non-significant. * mean ± SD* (Minimum - Maximum) of scores. ** p < 0.01. *** p < 0.001