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Table 1 Bivariate analysis of factors associated with acute lower respiratory infection among children under five in Rwanda, RDHS 2010

From: Social, economic and environmental risk factors for acute lower respiratory infections among children under five years of age in Rwanda

Name of Variable Children in study Children suffering from ALRI in last two weeks Chi-squared p-value
Number Number (Percent)
CHILD    0.001
Child age   82 (5.2)
 0-11 months 1, 573  
 12-23 months 1, 615 82 (5.1)
 24-59 months 5, 411 157 (2.9)
Child sex    0.104
 Boy 4,361 179 (4.1)
 Girl 4,238 144 (3.4)
Child underweighta    0.991
 No 3,648 139 (3.8)
 Yes 467 18 (3.8)
 Not measured 4,424 164 (3.7)
Child received BCG    0.109
 No 94 1 (0.9)
 Yes 8,503 323 (3.8)
Child received intestinal drugs in last 6 months    0.119
 No 94 4 (4.4)
 Yes 8,503 306 (3.6)
Anemia levela    0.083
 Not anemic 2,316 74 (3.2)
 Mild or moderate 1,441 60 (4.2)
 Severe 17 2 (14.6)
 Not measured 4,424 164 (3.7)
Child received vitamin A in last 6 months    0.040
 No 1,109 54 (4.9)
 Yes 7,484 269 (3.6)
Child delivered at a health facility    0.326
 No 2,625 89 (3.4)
 Yes 5,969 233 (3.9)
PARENT   
Mother current age    0.178
 <21 years 273 14 (5.3)
 21+ years 8,326 308 (3.7)
 Mother employment status    0.225
 Not working or self-employed agriculture 7,488 269 (3.6)
Working 1,100 50 (4.6)
 Mother education level    0.210
 Less than secondary 7,837 282 (3.6)
 Secondary or high 762 37 (4.9)
Partner education levela    0.406
 Less than secondary 7,155 257 (3.6)
 Secondary or higher 882 40 (4.4)
HOUSEHOLD    0.109
Bottom 10 % (wealth score)   
 No 7,737 278 (3.6)  
 Yes 862 42 (4.9)
Cooking fuel typea    0.417
 Unimproved 7,761 279 (3.6)
 Improved 743 33 (4.5)
Residence    0.064
 Rural 7,566 272 (3.6)
 Urban 1,033 54 (5.2)
Household size    0.195
 >5 members 3,796 152 (4.0)
 <=5 members 4,803 168 (3.5)
Source of drinking watera    0.322
 Unimproved 2,423 99 (4.1)
 Improvedb 6,088 213 (3.5)
Improved toileta    0.058
 Unimproved 2,308 101 (4.4)
 Improvedc 6,200 217 (3.5)
Season    0.001
 Dry 4,837 144 (3.0)
 Rainy 3,762 177 (4.7)
  1. aMissing observations
  2. bIncludes: piped water, piped into dwelling, piped to yard/plot, public tap/standpipe, tube well or borehole, protected well, protected spring, bottled water
  3. cIncludes: ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with slab