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Table 1 Mortality Rate Ratios (MRRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) in a random intercepts model with predictors at the individual and sub-district level, controlled for age and household position (Belgium, 2001–2011)

From: The geographic pattern of Belgian mortality: can socio-economic characteristics explain area differences?

Variable MRR (95 % CI)
Individual socio-economic position
Educational level
 No/Lower education 1.00 (Ref.)
 Lower secondary education 0.94 (0.92–0.96)***
 Higher secondary education 0.91 (0.89–0.93)***
 Higher education 0.75 (0.73–0.77)***
Employment status
 Active 1.00 (Ref.)
 Job-seeking 1.66 (1.61–1.71)***
 Retired 1.38 (1.35–1.41)***
 Unemployed (specific reason) 2.67 (2.60–2.73)***
 Never active/not capable of answer/other 2.28 (1.80–2.88)***
Job category
 Civil servant/other employee 1.00 (Ref.)
 Manager 1.00 (0.96–1.05)
 Self-employed/liberal profession 1.03 (1.01–1.06)*
 Labourer 1.04 (1.02–1.07)***
 Other 1.11 (1.06–1.15)***
Activity sector
 Primary 1.00 (Ref.)
 Secondary 1.11 (1.06–1.17)***
 Tertiary 1.18 (1.12–1.24)***
 Quaternary 1.25 (1.19–1.32)***
 Other 1.23 (1.16–1.30)***
Home ownership
 Owner/Usufructuary 1.00 (Ref.)
 Tenant 1.37 (1.34–1.40)***
 Tenant at a public institution 1.48 (1.44–1.53)***
Comfort level dwelling
 Insufficient comfort 1.00 (Ref.)
 Basic comfort 0.93 (0.90–0.95)***
 Good comfort 0.80 (0.77–0.82)***
 Good comfort and spacious 0.79 (0.76–0.81)***
 Very good comfort 0.72 (0.70–0.75)***
Area-level socio–economic characteristics
 % employed 0.98 (0.97–0.99)***
 % labourers 0.99 (0.98–0.99)***
 Variability intercept 0.01 (0.01–0.02)
 BIC 547122.70
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001