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Table 2 Characteristics of the study population of the Bladder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants study (BLEND)

From: International pooled study on diet and bladder cancer: the bladder cancer, epidemiology and nutritional determinants (BLEND) study: design and baseline characteristics

    Total     Europe     America     Asia  
  Cases Controls Cases Controls Cases Controls Cases Controls
  N (() N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Case–control studies
Gender
 Male 5,592 (77.9) 11,045 (55.9) 1,817 (83.5) 2,269 (71.0) 3,109 (74.6) 8,044 (50.7) 666 (80.6) 732 (79.0)
 Female 1,578 (22.1) 8,930 (44.1) 358 (16.5) 927 (29.0) 1,060 (25.4) 7,808 (49.3) 160 (19.4) 195 (21.0)
Age (mean, SD) 61.6 (11.4) 57.0 (14.4) 65.4 (9.7) 63.3 (10.9) 59.0 (11.1) 55.3 (14.5) 64.9 (13.1) 66.1 (12.2)
  < 50 961 (13.4) 5,665 (28.4) 135 (6.2) 308 (9.6) 723 (17.3) 5,271 (33.3) 103 (12.5) 86 (9.3)
 50– 59 1,832 (25.6) 4,501 (22.5) 407 (18.7) 787 (24.6) 1,261 (30.2) 3,549 (22.4) 164 (19.9) 165 (17.8)
 60–64 1,399 (19.5) 2,772 (13.9) 381 (17.5) 555 (17.4) 929 (22.3) 2,1 (13.2) 89 (10.8) 117 (12.6)
 65–69 1,122 (15.6) 2,842 (14.2) 482 (22.2) 567 (17.7) 522 (12.5) 2,138 (13.5) 118 (14.3) 137 (14.8)
  ≥ 70 1,856 (25.9) 4,195 (21.0) 770 (35.4) 979 (30.6) 734 (17.6) 2,794 (17.6) 352 (42.6) 422 (45.5)
Ethnic group
 Caucasian 4,438 (61.9) 15,057 (75.4) 593 (27.3) 831 (26.0) 3,845 (92.2) 14,226 (89.2) 782 (94.7) 767 (82.7)
 Mixed 9 (0.1) 10 (0.1) 9 (0.2) 10 (0.1)
 Asian 788 (11.0) 895 (4.5) 6 (0.1) 128 (0.8)
 Black 52 (0.7) 748 (3.7) 52 (1.2) 748 (4.7)
 Any other ethnic group 64 (0.9) 232 (1.2) 21 (0.5) 72 (0.5) 43 (5.2) 160 (17.3)
 Unknown 1,819 (25.4) 3,033 (15.2) 1,582 (72.7) 2,365 (74.0) 236 (5.7) 668 (4.2) 1 (0.1)
Tobacco smoking status
 Current smoker 2,95 (41.1) 6,98 (34.9) 1,038 (47.7) 1,022 (32.0) 1,564 (37.5) 5,695 (35.9) 348 (42.1) 263 (28.4)
 Former smoker 2,703 (37.7) 5,269 (26.4) 747 (34.3) 1,025 (32.1) 1,731 (41.5) 3,943 (24.9) 225 (27.2) 301 (32.5)
 Never smoker 1,517 (21.2) 7,726 (38.7) 390 (17.9) 1,149 (36.0) 874 (21.0) 6,214 (39.2) 253 (30.6) 363 (39.2)
Staging
 Non–invasive 2,246 (31.3) 511 (23.5) 1,606 (38.5) 129 (15.6)
 Invasive 609 (8.5) 73 (3.4) 366 (8.8) 170 (20.6)
 Unknown 4,315 (60.2) 1,591 (73.1) 2,197 (52.7) 527 (63.8)
Continent
 Europe 2,175 (30.3) 3,196 (16.0)
 America 4,169 (58.1) 15,852 (79.4)
 Asia 826 (11.5) 927 (4.6)
Cohort studies
Gender
 Male 2,866 (69.2) 205,678 (31.4) 2,544 (74.9) 146,333 (27.5) 338 (76.1) 39,983 (52.3) 216 (71.8) 19,362 (40.7)
 Female 1,277 (30.8) 449,827 (68.6) 854 (25.1) 385,124 (72.5) 106 (23.9) 36,454 (47.7) 85 (28.2) 28,249 (59.3)
Age (mean, SD) 61.1 (8.5) 51.8 (10.8) 60.9 (7.9) 50.4 (10.2) 66.4 (6.4) 61.4 (7.4) 55.7 (12.0) 52.0 (13.6)
  < 50 380 (9.2) 270,949 (41.3) 277 (8.2) 249,151 (46.9) 103 (34.2) 21,798 (45.8)
 50–59 1,305 (31.5) 232,316 (35.4) 1,154 (34.0) 184,999 (34.8) 69 (15.5) 35,193 (46.0) 82 (27.2) 12,124 (25.5)
 60–64 1,114 (26.9) 81,842 (12.5) 974 (28.7) 62,868 (11.8) 92 (20.7) 13,923 (18.2) 48 (15.9) 5,051 (10.6)
 65–69 757 (18.3) 39,082 (6.0) 610 (18.0) 22,425 (4.2) 109 (24.5) 12,561 (16.4) 38 (12.6) 4,096 (8.6)
  ≥ 70 587 (14.2) 31,316 (4.8) 383 (11.3) 12,014 (2.3) 174 (39.2) 14,760 (19.3) 30 (10.0) 4,542 (9.5)
Ethnic group
 Caucasian 3,815 (92.1) 602,416 (91.9) 3,398 (100) 531,457 (100) 417 (93.9) 70,959 (92.8)
 Asian 314 (7.6) 50,651 (7.7) 13 (2.9) 3,04 (4.0) 301 (100) 47,611 (100)
 Black 7 (0.2) 969 (0.1) 7 (1.6) 969 1.3)
 Any other ethnic group 1 (0.0) 475 (0.1) 1 (0.2) 475 (0.6)
 Unknown 6 (0.1) 994 (0.2) 6 (1.4) 994 (1.3)
Tobacco smoking status
 Current smoker 1,677 (40.5) 156,467 (23.9) 1,418 (41.7) 130,871 (24.6) 61 (13.7) 6,411 (8.4) 198 (65.8) 19,185 (40.3)
 Former smoker 1,594 (38.5) 185,006 (28.2) 1,296 (38.1) 149,472 (28.1) 280 (63.1) 33,651 (44.0) 18 (6.0) 1,883 (4.0)
 Never smoker 872 (21.0) 314,032 (47.9) 684 (20.1) 251,114 (47.3) 103 (23.2) 36,375 47.6) 85 (28.2) 26,543 (55.7)
Staging
 Non–invasive 1,196 (28.9) 1,196 (35.2)
 Invasive 661 (16.0) 661 (19.5)
 Unknown 2,286 (55.2) 1,541 (45.4) 444 (100) 301 (100)
Continent
 Europe 3,398 (82.0) 531,457 (81.1)
 America 444 (10.7) 76,437 (11.7)
 Asia 301 (7.3) 47,611 (7.3)