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Table 2 Biomarker levels among study participants (N = 278) by age group and study area, Ath, Belgium, 2009

From: Human biomonitoring of heavy metals in the vicinity of non-ferrous metal plants in Ath, Belgium

  Central area Peripheral area Total
Children (2.5 to 6 years) n = 49 n = 49 n = 98
 Blood lead, μg/l 18.2 (15.9–20.9) [6–66] 14.8 (12.6–17.4) [3–68]a 16.6 (14.8–18.2) [3–68]
Children (7 to 11 years) n = 38 n = 36 n = 74
 Blood lead, μg/l 15.5 (13.2–18.2) 14.1 (11.8–17.4) [4–50] 14.8 (13.2–16.6) [4–50]
 Blood cadmium, μg/l 0.13 (0.11–0.15) [0–0.3] 0.14 (0.12–0.16) [0–0.2] 0.13 (0.12–0.15) [0–0.3]
 Urinary cadmium, μg/g cr 0.07 (0.05–0.09) [0.01–0.22] 0.06 (0.04–0.07) [0.02–0.20] 0.06 (0.05–0.07) [0.01–0.22]
 Urinary cobalt, μg/g cr 0.38 (0.29–0.50) [0.08–1.27] 0.29 (0.23–0.36) [0.09–0.68] 0.33 (0.28–0.39) [0.08–1.27]
 Urinary chromium, μg/g cr 0.18 (0.15–0.21) [0.06–0.47] 0.18 (0.15–0.23) [0.07–0.48] 0.18 (0.16–0.21) [0.06–0.48]
 Urinary nickel, μg/g cr 1.75 (1.46–2.09) [0.37–3.92] 1.75 (1.37–2.26) [0.30–5.74] 1.75 (1.51–2.03) [0.30–5.74]
 Urinary RBP, μg/g cr 105.1 (86.5–128.7) [25.6–352] 98.2 (72.0–128.7) [17.1–735] 100.6 (85.0–119.2) [17.1–735]
Men (40–60 years) n = 27 n = 25 n = 52
 Blood lead, μg/l 31.2 (26.4–36.9) [14–85] 32.3 (26.1–40.0) [12–118] 31.7 (27.9–36.1) [12–118]
 Blood cadmium, μg/l 0.25 (0.19–0.33) [0.1–1.2] 0.38 (0.29–0.50) [0.1–1.7] 0.30 (0.25–0.37) [0.1–1.7]
 Urinary cadmium, μg/g cr 0.22 (0.16–0.30) [0.05–0.87] 0.20 (0.14–0.30) [0.04–0.78] 0.21 (0.17–0.27) [0.04–0.87]
 Urinary cobalt, μg/g cr 0.15 (0.11–0.20) [0.06–0.58] 0.18 (0.13–0.25) [0.06–1.84] 0.16 (0.13–0.20) [0.06–1.84]
 Urinary chromium, μg/g cr 0.13 (0.10–0.16) [0.05–0.33] 0.16 (0.13–0.21) [0.05–0.35] 0.14 (0.12–0.17) [0.05–0.35]
 Urinary nickel, μg/g cr 0.65 (0.51–0.84) [0.21–2.58] 0.69 (0.51–0.92) [0.20–2.16] 0.67 (0.56–0.80) [0.20–2.58]
 Urinary RBP, μg/g cr 96.0 (66.7–138.2) [2.9–388] 93.4 (79.9–109.8) [44.2–192] 94.9 (78.1–115.2) [2.9–388]
 Urinary albumin, mg/l 7.85 (5.85–10.54) [5.6–52.4] 9.29 (6.40–13.49) [5.6–101] 8.52 (6.78–10.72) [5.6–101]
Women (40–60 years) n = 28 n = 26 n = 54
 Blood lead, μg/l 22.5 (18.0–28.2) [4–57] 20.3 (15.6–26.5) [6–93] 21.4 (18.1–25.3) [4–93]
 Blood cadmium, μg/l 0.37 (0.29–0.47) [0.2–1.9] 0.39 (0.32–0.47) [0.2–1.6] 0.38 (0.33–0.44) [0.2–1.9]
 Urinary cadmium, μg/g cr 0.23 (0.17–0.33) [0.04–0.78] 0.25 (0.18–0.34) [0.05–1.0] 0.25 (0.20–0.30) [0.04–1.0]
 Urinary cobalt, μg/g cr 0.20 (0.16–0.26) [0.07–0.40] 0.22 (0.17–0.29) [0.09–1.12] 0.21 (0.18–0.25) [0.07–1.12]
 Urinary chromium, μg/g cr 0.17 (0.14–0.20) [0.06–0.32] 0.18 (0.15–0.21) [0.07–0.29] 0.17 (0.15–0.20) [0.06–0.32]
 Urinary nickel, μg/g cr 1.30 (1.05–1.61) [0.66–3.25] 0.96 (0.72–1.29) [0.17–2.02] 1.10 (0.91–1.33) [0.17–3.25]
 Urinary RBP, μg/g cr 121.4 (97.9–159.4) [47.1–411] 108.5 (87.5–134.5) [38.2–270] 115.9 (99.1–135.5) [38.2–411]
 Urinary albumin, mg/l 11.05 (6.94–17.60) [5.6–179] 8.44 (6.15–11.60) [5.6–46.7] 9.57 (7.33–12.50) [5.6–179]
  1. Data are geometric means (95 % Confidence Interval) [minimum-maximum]. aStatistically significant difference (p <0.05) between central and peripheral area using the Student’s t-test, cr creatinine, RBP retinol-binding protein