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Table 2 Rates of hand hygiene compliance (%) from 2005 to 2015 in Belgian intensive care units (ICU) participating in nationwide hand hygiene campaigns

From: Belgian hand hygiene campaigns in ICU, 2005–2015

  Campaign 2005 Campaign 2007 Campaign 2009 Campaign 2011 Campaign 2013 Campaign 2015
Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After
Opportunities (N)
 N observed opportunities (ICU) 5149 4358 6310 4776 4167 3548 5221 4553 18898 19174 18775 13121
Compliance rates
 Overall national compliance (%) 49.6 68.6 53.2 69.5 58.0 69.4 62.3 72.9 64.1 75.8 69.1 77.7
 Overall ICU compliance (%) 49.6 67.0 53.7 65.9 59.6a 67.3a 62.7 74.2 69.8 77.5 72.0 80.2
By type of healthcare worker
 Nurse 53.8 69.2 59.5 68.8 63.1a 73.3a 65.8 76.7 73.0 80.1 75.2 81.8
 Nursing assistant 53.7a 55.3a 60.0a 57.6a 44.3a 76.8 66.2 75.1 67.1a 77.7a 80.0a 75.8a
 Physician 40.4 57.7 38.5 56.3 53.1a 53.5a 54.5 56.6 59.0 65.9 61.2 70.6
 Physiotherapist 51.8a 70.2a 57.1a 68.0a 62.7a 71.6a 63.6 78.1 73.0 77.9 72.4 79.3
 Other 25.8 70.9 33.8a 45.6a 55.1a 47.8a 45.2a 52.8a 53.5 68.6 63.5 74.1
By hand hygiene indication
 Before patient contact 39.3 54.0 44.8a 60.7a 50.5a 59.6a 52.2 68.6 62.7 71.5 64.1 75.2
 After patient contact 64.3 80.5 68.2a 77.6a 71.3a 78.1a 76.3 82.1 81.8 86.0 82.6 87.8
 Before aseptic procedure 34.0 48.7 36.9a 47.1a 43.3a 53.3a 45.7 64.4 56.9 65.8 59.1 70.7
 After body fluid exposure 64.4 85.1 65.0a 70.0a 67.6a 81.1a 72.6 84.4 77.1 85.1 77.6 82.5
 After contact with patient environment 45.3 61.9 50.0a 60.0a 55.7 65.1 64.8 65.4 65.6 77.6 69.9 76.8
  1. aNo significant difference