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Table 3 Maternal BMI and adverse birth outcomes

From: Maternal undernutrition and excessive body weight and risk of birth and health outcomes

  BMI group (kg/m2) N (n) Proportion (%) ORorRR (95% CI)
Unadjusted Adjusted
Stuntinga,b,c,d,e,h,i,m,n <18.5 1556 (706) 45.4 1.41 (1.25-1.59) 1.29 (1.11-1.40)
18.5-25 4067 (1507) 37.1 1.00 1.00
25-30 1097 (271) 24.7 0.55 (0.48-0.65) 0.80 (0.64-0.89)
≥30 239 (59) 24.7 0.56 (0.41-0.75) 0.78 (0.49-1.20)
Wastinga,b,c,d,e,h,i,m,n <18.5 1556 (312) 20.8 1.53 (1.31-1.78) 1.59 (1.13-1.80)
18.5-25 4067 (572) 14.5 1.00 1.00
25-30 1097 (100) 9.0 0.61 (0.49-0.76) 0.46 (0.34-0.86)
≥30 239 (18) 4.5 0.50 (0.31-0.81) 0.49 (0.29-0.0.56)
Low birth weightd,e,g,h <18.5 1072 (262) 24.4 0.62 (0.43-0.93) 0.73 (0.49-1.09)
18.5-25 2507 (458) 18.3 1.00 1.00
25-30 608 (101) 16.6 1.15 (0.85-1.55) 0.96 (0.72-1.29)
≥30 144 (18) 12.5 1.72 (0.86-3.46) 1.36 (0.70-2.66)
Stillbirthsa,f,h* <18.5 1466 (22) 1.5 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 0.92 (0.52-1.63)
18.5-25 3774 (54) 1.5 1.00 1.00
25-30 1055 (10) 1.0 0.99 (0.98-1.00) 0.71 (0.32-1.58)
≥30 253 (4) 1.58 1.00 (0.99-1.02) 3.20 (0.77-13.55)
Early neonatal mortalitya,f,h <18.5 637 (15) 2.4 0.99 (0.98-1.00) 0.87 (0.40-1.85)
18.5-25 1797 (50) 2.9 1.00 1.00
25-30 554 (11) 2.0 0.99 (0.98-1.01) 1.42 (0.50-4.07)
≥30 119 (3) 2.5 1.00 (0.97-1.02) 1.08 (0.31-3.87)
Perinatal mortality a,f,h* <18.5 1466 (36) 2.5 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 0.87 (0.54-1.41)
18.5-25 3774 (104) 2.8 1.00 1.00
25-30 1055 (21) 2.0 0.99 (0.98-1.00) 1.21 (0.52-2.85)
≥30 253 (7) 2.8 1.00 (0.97-1.02) 1.77 (0.64-4.89)
Prolonged labora,j,k,l* <18.5 75 (19) 25.3 0.98 (0.86-1.11) 1.90 (0.90-3.99)
18.5-25 160 (44) 27.5 1.00 1.00
≥25 23 (10) 43.5 1.17 (0.96-1.43) 7.57 (1.26-45.43)
Preterm birtha,j,k,l* <18.5 75 (18) 24.0 0.88 (0.77-1.00) 0.43 (0.20-0.92)
18.5-25 161 (59) 16.8 1.00 1.00
≥25 24 (5) 20.8 0.85 (0.70-1.04) 0.28 (0.08-0.94)
  1. N; Total sample and n; number of event; kg, Kilogram; m2, base unit of length
  2. In some cases overweight and obesity were combined due to small sample size. The proportion (percent) and the result of three level logistic regression analysis (*multilevel Poisson regression) were tabulated for each variable according to the BMI. All multilevel regression analysis includes age, respondent’s education, wealth index, region, place of residence. Additional confounding factors are included by the superscripts number (a = body mass index, b = age of child, c = birth order, d = husband education, e = household food security, f = current working status, g = children ever boron, h = antenatal care, i = low birth weight, j = anemia, k = gestational diabetes, l = gestational hypertension, m = diarrhea, n = acute respiratory infection)