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Table 1 Overview on European cross-sectional HBM studies

From: Environmental health surveillance in a future European health information system

  Scientific Focus Size Age groups Matrix Chemicals Frequency
Belgium FLEHS Wide range of exposure burden in Flanders, reference values 650 new-borns and their mothers 14–15 y/o adults 20–40 y/o adults Cord blood, blood, urine hair metals, dioxins, PCBs, PAHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, phthalates, musks, parabens and organophosphate pesticides, flame retardants 4× since 2002
Czech Republic EHMS Core set of chemicals measured in the Czech population 1290 18–58 y/o adults 8–10 y/o children breastfeeding primiparas g Blood urine, breastmilk, teeth metals, PCBs, cotinine, organochlorines Annually since 1994
France ENNS Wide range of exposure burden on children and adults in France 4790 3–17 y/o children 18–74 y/o adults Blood, urine hair metals, PCBs, organochlorines, pyrethroids, organophosphates Once, 2006–2007
Germany GerES Wide range of exposure burden on adults, children and adolescents in Germany, reference values 1790–4822 adults: GerES I-III: 18–79 y children and adolescents: GerES III-V: 6–17 y (GerES III) 3–14 y (GerES IV) 3–17 y (GerES V) (in preparation: adults: GerES VI: 18–79 y) Blood urine metals, organochlorines, cotinine, organophosphates, chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrethroids, phthalates, bisphenol A, phenanthrenes, plasticiser substitutes, pyrrolidones 5× since 1985
Italy PROBE POPs´ and metals’ internal dose in adults to highlight the environmental impact on the health of Italian population 1423 18–65 y/o adults Blood 20 metals, POPs 2× (both 2008)
Slovenia HBM program Pilot study for establishing reference values for selected chemicals in Slovenia 320 Breast feeding first time mothers (20–35 y/o) and their male partners Blood breast milk metals, PCBs, PBDEs, PCDDs, PCDFs 2× (2007, 2011)
Spain- BIOAMBI-ENT.ES Estimation of levels of heavy metals and other substances on the Spanish active workforce 1892 Participants (≥16 y/o) Blood, urine hair metals, PCBs, cotinine, organochlorines, PAHs, PBDEs, perfluorinated alkyl substances, phthalates, DINCH Once, 2009–2010
Spain BEA Study of the adolescents to environmental pollutants and determinant factors 500 Adolescents (14–16 y/o) Blood, urine, hair Metals, bisphenols, triclosan, phthalates and others organic pollutants Once, 2017
DEMOCOPHES To test the feasibility of harmonized HBM in Europe 1844 (~ 240 per country) Children 6–11 y/o and their mothers (≤ 45 y/o) Hair urine phthalates, cadmium, mercury Once, 2010–2012