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Table 1 General characteristics of the study participants, Mao health district, February–August 2017

From: Individual and household risk factors of severe acute malnutrition among under-five children in Mao, Chad: a matched case-control study

Characteristic Cases N = 137 Controls N = 274 Total N = 411
Demographic and socio-economic profile
 Number of people in the household, mean 5.61 5.91 5.81
 Number of children under five, mean 1.74 1.86 1.82
 Household possesses livestock 76 (55.47%) 172 (62.77%) 248 (60.34%)
 Agricultural activities by the household 32 (23.36%) 59 (21.53%) 91 (22.14%)
Child caretakers’ profile and health seeking behaviour
 Age of caretakers (years), mean 25.42 25.74 25.63
 Income generating status / Not employed 125 (91.24%) 247 (90.15%) 371 (90.51%)
 Follow antenatal care visits 118 (86.13%) 250 (91.24%) 368 (89.54%)
 Usual practice when child is sick
  Taking child to the health centre 50 (36.50%) 117 (42.70%) 167 (40.63%)
  Self-treatment methods 85 (62.04%) 156 (56.93%) 241 (58.64%)
 Caretaker participates in decision making on expenses for child health care 10 (7.30%) 11 (4.01%) 21 (5.11%)
 Reasons for not going to health centre to consult with health professionals
  High prices 64 (46.72%) 120 (43.80%) 184 (44.77%)
  Lack of time 21 (15.33%) 43 (15.69%) 64 (15.57%)
  Lack of means of transport 9 (6.57%) 28 (10.22%) 37 (9.00%)
  Long distances 7 (5.11%) 13 (4.74%) 20 (4.87%)
Household WASH conditions
 Soap is present in the household 128 (93.43%) 259 (94.53%) 387 (94.16%)
 Where toilet is not present, family practice open defecation 71 (51.82%) 120 (43.79%) 191 (46.47%)
 Principal water source for the household
  Tap 57 (41.61%) 118 (43.07%) 175 (42.58%)
  Forage with a hand pump 47 (34.31%) 89 (32.48%) 136 (33.09%)
  Open well 26 (18.98%) 42 (15.33%) 68 (16.15%)
  Other 7 (5.11%) 25 (9.12%) 32 (7.79%)
 Time needed to collect water ≥30 min 71 (51.82%) 184 (67.15%) 255 (62.04%)
 Persons in charge of water collection
  Women 132 (96.35%) 265 (96.72%) 397 (96.59%)
  Men 15 (10.95%) 28 (10.22%) 43 (10.46%)
  Children 75 (54.74%) 134 (48.91%) 209 (50.85%)
 Household has less than 15 l per person per day 10 (7.30%) 14 (5.11%) 24 (5.84%)
 Container used for water transport is dirty 70 (51.09%) 107 (39.05%) 177 (43.07%)
 Water is stored in an unhygienic place 115 (83.94%) 200 (72.99%) 315 (76.64%)
 Water is treated before consumption 5 (3.65%) 10 (3.65%) 15 (3.65%)
 Good drinking water quality at point-of-use 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Escherichia coli = 0 28 (20.44%) 44 (16.06%) 72 (17.52%)
 Presence of faecal material (human or animal) around the household 99 (72.26%) 200 (72.99%) 299 (72.57%)
 Presence of faecal material (human or animal) in the child’s play areas 65 (47.45%) 124 (45.26%) 189 (45.99%)
 Kitchen utensils or food leftovers are left uncovered on the floor 55 (40.15%) 96 (35.04%) 151 (36.74%)
 Household uses mosquito bed nets 21 (15.33%) 35 (12.77%) 56 (13.63%)
  1. Cases = children 6–59 months, MUAC < 115 mm and/or weight for height Z-score (WHZ) < − 3 SD and/or presence of bilateral oedema
  2. Controls = children 6–59 months, MUAC ≥125 mm and weight for height Z-score (WHZ) of ≥ − 1.5 SD, without sign of bilateral oedema