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Table 3 Bivariate associations between independent variables and mean scores on SF-32v2 scales (Standard Deviation), N = 237

From: Determinants of health- related quality of life (HRQoL) among deaf and hard of hearing adults in Greece: a cross-sectional study

Variable Physical Functioning Role-Physical Bodily Pain General Health Vitality Social Functioning Role-Emotional Mental Health Physical component summary score Mental component summary score
Gender a
 Women 49,3 (6,9) 46,9 (9,1) 48,9 (10,5) 49,0 (9,7) 46,2 (10,5) 44,6 (9,5)* 41,9 (10,2) 40,5 (11,0) 51,6 (6,8) 40,1 (10,8)
 Men 49,4 (9,6) 46,1 (10,1) 47,2 (10,5) 47,8 (12,1) 46,6 (12,9) 41,6 (10,9)* 40,6 (11,7) 39,0 (13,1) 51,1 (8,9) 38,5 (12,7)
Age (years) b −0,24* − 0,13* − 0,13* −0,16* − 0,01 − 0,06 − 0,05 − 0,05 − 0,24* − 0,001
BMI b −0,39* − 0,28* − 0,14* −0,23* − 0,22* − 0,29* − 0,21* −0,25* − 0,30* −0,22*
Hearing status c
 Normal hearing 52,9 (5,8)* 52,6 (5,9)* 51,7 (9,2)* 52,4 (8,1)* 50,6 (10,4)* 47,7 (9,2)* 46,5 (8,5)* 43,3 (9,4)* 55,5 (5,0)* 43,6 (9,8)*
 Hard of hearing 49,4 (7,5)* 46,7 (8,2)* 48,2 (9,9)* 48,5 (10,9)* 49,0 (11,6)* 44,7 (8,9)* 43,2 (9,1)* 41,9 (11,8)* 50,8 (7,6)* 42,2 (10,7)*
 Deaf 45,3 (8,5)* 39,8 (8,9)* 44,5 (11,1)* 44,3 (11,5)* 39,7 (9,1)* 37,9 (9,4)* 34,5 (10,4)* 34,9 (12,7)* 47,4 (7,8)* 33,2 (11,3)*
Marital Status c
 Category 1 (unmarried, divorced, widowed) 48,6 (8,3)* 45,6 (9,2)* 48,6 (10,6) 47,5 (10,4)* 45,2 (10,7)* 42,7 (9,8)* 40,4 (10,7)* 38,7 (11,5)* 51,1 (7,6) 38,2 (11,1)*
 Category 2 (married, in cohabitation) 50,1 (7,6)* 47,8 (9,6)* 47,9 (10,5) 49,8 (10,7)* 47,6 (12,1)* 44,5 (10,4)* 42,6 (10,7)* 41,4 (12,1)* 51,9 (7,8) 41,0 (11,9)*
Number of family members per household b 0,18* 0,17* 0,07 0,20* 0,21* 0,16* 0,17* 0,21* 0,14* 0,20*
Educational attainment d 0,43* 0,43* 0,27* 0,32* 0,29* 0,32* 0,34* 0,23* 0,43* 0,25*
Family annual income (euro) d 0,15* 0,28* 0,23* 0,21* 0,27* 0,37* 0,36* 0,32* 0,16* 0,37*
Tobacco consumer c
 Current 47,8 (8,3)* 44,8 (9,3)* 48,6 (11,0) 46,7 (10,7)* 44,5 (11,8)* 42,5 (9,5) 40,3 (10,7) 39,4 (12,5) 50,1 (8,0)* 50,1 (8,0)*
 Former 50,0 (8,2)* 48,2 (9,8)* 47,4 (10,8) 50,0 (11,2)* 47,2 (12,1)* 44,6 (10,4) 42,1 (11,7) 41,1 (13,1) 52,0 (7,3)* 52,0 (7,3)*
 Never 50,8 (7,4)* 48,0 (9,2)* 48,3 (9,9) 50,0 (10,2)* 48,0 (10,4)* 44,2 (10,7) 42,4 (10,4) 40,0 (10,5) 52,8 (7,1)* 52,8 (7,1)*
Physical activity (hours per week) d, e 0,52* 0,29* 0,06 0,35* 0,28* 0,22* 0,25* 0,18* 0,37* 0,19*
Alcohol consumption (units of alcohol per week) d, e −0,31* − 0,37* −0,22* − 0,23* −0,31* − 0,23* − 0,33* − 0,27* − 0,29* − 0,29*
  1. Values are expressed as n (%) unless otherwise is indicated
  2. *p < 0.20
  3. at- test, b Pearson correlation coefficient, c Analysis of variance, d Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, e Median (range)