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Table 2 List of the studies for UHC service coverage status in Nepal 2012–2018: a systematic review, Nepal, 2018

From: Challenges and opportunities towards the road of universal health coverage (UHC) in Nepal: a systematic review

SN Study/sources Challenges Opportunities
1 Hogan DR Monitoring universal health coverage within the Sustainable Development Goals: development and baseline data for an index of essential health services [8] Nepal’s UHC service coverage index is low i.e. only 46 (The higher rank is > 80) and increasing the UHC service coverage index is challenging. The legal status is progressive and high probability to accelerate the service coverage.
2 Barriers to using skilled birth attendants’ services inmid- and far-western Nepal: a cross-sectional study [56] Education level, geographical difficulties and lack of trained human resources are the barrier to achieve SBA coverage. Political commitment to promote maternal and child health service and conditional cash transfer (CCT) for antenatal checkup institutional delivery and post-partum period from local provincial and central government.
3 Maternal Health in Nepal Progress, Challenges and Opportunities [57] Lack of awareness about maternal health services, underutilization of maternal health services, social disparities in maternal health, political instability, and low socio-economic status of women, teenage marriage and early pregnancy, unsafe abortion, maldistribution of human resource for health, unavailability and unaffordability of quality care, superstition and indigenous practice. Special programs have been formulated to achieve the targets of Second Long Term Health Plan, National Health Policy, Millennium Development Goal, and National Health Sector Program and so on.
4 K Sceammell et. al; A landscape analysis of universal health coverage for mothers and children in South Asia [58] Health facilities have not enough space, privacy, equipment and drugs for maternal and child health service. Government of Nepal provided high priority to establish well equipped birthing centers in each health facilities.
5 Bhutta ZA et. al Global experience of community health workers for delivery of health related millennium development goals: a systematic review, country case studies, and recommendations for integration into national health systems. [59] Insufficiency of experts (Physician, Surgeon, Gynecologist etc.) middle and basic level health workforce paramedics and nurse) related to universal health coverage. Regional and zonal hospitals are going to establish to train health workers.
6 Success factors for women’s and children’s health: Nepal [60] Inequality of MCH program, poor quality of skill delivery in remote area and increasing poverty after earthquake 2015. The successful achievement of maternal health (ANC and SBA) and child health in Millennium Development Goal.
7 NK Raut. Path to Universal Health Coverage in Nepal: Is it Achievable? [61] About 1/3rd of population in rural, mid and far western and poor people have less than adequate basic health service coverage, child vaccination coverage is > 85% and basic maternal health service coverage is about 50% which is due to geographical difficulties, complex bureaucratic structure and not able to define poor and minorities. Government of Nepal is initiating basic health service package and minimum service standard of each health facilities to achieve UHC with legal and institutional framework.
8 GP Bhandari State of non-communicable diseases in Nepal [62] High proportion of NCDs (CVD, COPD, DM and cancer) in non-specialist institutions revels 31% that makes threats to control It has been high priority program and controlling guidelines and protocols are preparing in community level too.
9 Sharma SR, Non-communicable disease prevention in Nepal: systemic challenges and future directions [63] Behavioral factors such as tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet are driving the epidemic of NCDs, which are further influenced by social, economic and environmental determinants. Multispectral Action Plan for Prevention and Control of NCDs 2014–2020 has been formulated in grass root level too.
10 Shrestha A. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal [64] Quality of water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) is poor in school and household level and maintenance of public toilets have created problems. School led total sanitation and community led total sanitation program has been started.
11 Verma SC Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV infected persons in Pokhara, Nepal [65] Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection, alcohol consumption with TB and low case finding rate in rural area are challenging. Directly Observed Treatment Short course is still effective and female community health volunteer program accelerates case findings in community.