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Table 3 Principal component analysis for professionals: representative questions and output loading (Varimax variation)

From: Conceptualizing sexual and gender-based violence in European asylum reception centers

Professionals
SEXUAL VIOLENCE PCA Loading output
PC15 – Sexual innuendo
 Unwelcome and unwanted sexual comments or invitations to girls/women. 0.619
 And if this happens to boys/men? 0.600
PC3 – Visual sexual harassment
 Made to watch somebody undress as a girl/woman? 0.858
 And if this happens to boys/men? 0.879
 Made to watch photos of naked persons as a girl/woman? 0.887
 And if this happens to boys/men? 0.817
PC14 – Denudement
 Having to undress in front of other people watching as a girl/woman? 0.698
 And if this happens to boys/men? 0.799
PC1 –Abuse, Rape and Trafficking
 Unwelcome penetration of the vagina and/or anus by an organ or by an object of girls/women? 0.930
 And if this happens to boys/men? 0.930
 Trafficking of people for their organs? 0.833
 And if this happens to boys/men? 0.833
PC10 – Sexual exploitation
 Sex with a girl/woman in exchange for survival, food for the children, shelter, money, papers, other favors. 0.916
 And if this happens to boys/men? 0.916
PHYSICAL VIOLENCE
 PC8 – Physical assault without permanent consequences
  Physical assault with no permanent consequences (e.g. hitting, kicking, pulling) 0.773
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.790
 PC5 – Physical assault with permanent consequences
  Physical assault with permanent consequences (e.g. burning, stabbing, maiming) 0.877
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.877
  Killing a girl/woman in the name of family honor? 0.798
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.843
PSYCHOLOGICAL VIOLENCE
 PC 12 – Threat and humiliation
  Threatening of girls/women with unwelcome not sexual acts (make you feel scared.…) 0.548
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.549
  Teasing, showing no respect, racist or discriminating comments to a girl/woman? 0.546
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.546
 PC9 – Verbal violence
  Unwelcome remarks and comments from nonsexual nature to girls/women. 0.759
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.759
 PC13 – Confinement, individual level
  As a girl/woman to be isolated, confined and/or deprived of liberty of movement 0.720
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.642
 PC6 – Relational violence
  Someone denying a girl/woman to be together with his or her partner in private? 0.863
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.862
  Someone denying a girl/woman to be together with her parents or children in private. 0.812
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.812
 PC16 – Parental relational violence
  Someone denying a girl/woman to fulfill her role as a mother (no money for food) 0.669
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.669
HARMFUL CULTURAL PRACTICES
 PC17 – Genital mutilation
  Circumcision of girl/woman? 0.417
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.632
 PC7 – Early marriage
  Child marriage of a girl/woman? 0.882
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.862
  PC 11 – Honor killing and maiming
  Injuring a girl/woman in the name of family honor? 0.853
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.853
SOCIO-ECONOMIC VIOLENCE
 PC2 – Denial of opportunities and services
  Denial of access to education, health assistance or remunerated employment because of the ethnic background of a girl/woman 0.874
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.874
  Denial of access to education, health assistance or remunerated employment because of the residence status of a girl/woman. 0.846
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.846
 PC4 – Social exclusion/ostracism
  Being treated differently by other people because of the sexual orientation of a girl/woman? 0.794
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.806
  Being treated differently by other people because of the ethnic background of a girl/woman? 0.780
  And if this happens to boys/men? 0.780