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Table 4 Residents and professionals – SGBV conceptualization, grouped according to UNHCR SGBV definition

From: Conceptualizing sexual and gender-based violence in European asylum reception centers

Residents Professionals
Sexual Violence
Sexual innuendo Sexual innuendo
Visual sexual harassment Visual sexual harassment
 – Denudement
Marital rape
Abuse, rape and trafficking Abuse, rape and trafficking
Sexual exploitation
Physical Violence
Physical assault without permanent consequences
Physical assault with permanent consequences
Psychological Violence
Humiliation Threat and humiliation
 Confinement Verbal violence
 – Confinement – individual level
 – Relational violence
 – Parental relational violence
Harmful Cultural Practices
 Denial of education of girls and women
 Genital mutilation Genital mutilation
 Early marriage Early marriage
 Honor killing and Maiming Honor killing and Maiming
Socio-economic Violence
 Discrimination
 Denial of opportunities and services Denial of opportunities and services
 Denial of access to exercise civil, social, economic rights
 Social exclusion/ostracism based on sexual orientation Social exclusion/ostracism