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Table 6 Trend in household food consumption, dietary diversity, and food security in the Karnali Zone of Nepal after controlling for confounders, 2009-2015

From: The impact of unconditional child cash grant on child malnutrition and its immediate and underlying causes in five districts of the Karnali Zone, Nepal – A trend analysis

Variables 2009 (Ref.) Dolpa AOR(95%CI) Jumla AOR(95%CI) Mugu AOR(95%CI) Humla AOR(95%CI) Kalikot AOR(95%CI) Karnali Zone AOR(95%CI)
2013 2015 2013 2015 2013 2013 2015 2015 2013 2015 2013 2015
Household food consumption
Poor (ref) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Borderline 1 0.84
(0.57-1.24)
1.17
(0.82-1.68)
0.95
(0.58-1.54)
0.95
(0.62-1.46)
0.95
(0.54-1.67)
0.92
(0.63-1.35)
0.76
(0.53-1.08)
0.86
(0.59-1.26)
0.91
(0.60-1.39)
1.17
(0.81-1.68)
0.83
(0.60-1.16)
1.06
(0.76-1.47)
Acceptable 1 0.97
(0.68-1.39)
1.05
(0.76-1.45)
0.97
(0.63-1.48)
0.96
(0.66-1.40)
1.09
(0.79-1.52)
1.01
(0.62-1.65)
1.34
(0.97-1.84)
1.02
(0.72-1.45)
0.96
(0.66-1.39)
0.97
(0.70-1.35)
1.27
(0.92-1.74)
0.95
(0.69-1.30)
Household dietary diversity
Low dietary diversity (ref) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Moderate dietary diversity 1 0.33***
(0.24-0.44)
0.37***
(0.28-0.49)
1.15
(0.78-1.69)
0.48***
(0.35-0.67)
1.39
(1.05-1.83)*
0.70
(0.46-1.06)
1.01
(0.78-1.32)
0.72*
(0.53-0.96)
0.96
(0.70-1.31)
0.79
(0.60-1.03)
0.73***
(0.64-0.83)
0.37***
(0.32-0.42)
High dietary diversity 1 0.24***
(0.17-0.34)
0.32)***
(0.24-0.44
0.62
(0.41-0.94)*
0.25***
(0.18-0.37)
1.28
(0.92-1.77)
0.59*
(0.37-0.95)
0.92
(0.67-1.25)
0.78
(0.56-1.10)
1.10
(0.76-1.60)
0.83
(0.60-1.16)
0.46***
(0.39-0.55)
0.21***
(0.18-0.25)
Household food security†
Severely food insecure (ref) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Moderate food insecure 1 0.58
(0.37-0.90)
0.80
(0.51-1.26)
0.85
(0.48-1.50)
1.13
(0.68-1.87)
0.78
(0.50-1.23)
1.08
(0.50-2.30)
1.16
(0.82-1.64)
1.09
(0.72-1.63)
0.77
(0.45-1.29)
0.83
(0.53-1.31)
0.65***
(0.53-0.81)
0.94
(0.75-1.19)
Food secure 1 0.79
(0.52-1.20)
1.12
(0.73-1.72)
1.05
(0.63-1.72)
1.05
(0.67-1.64)
0.79
(0.52-1.20)
1.91
(0.97-3.76)
0.95
(0.70-1.30)
1.49*
(1.04-2.12)
0.94
(0.60-1.47)
1.11
(0.75-1.64)
0.69***
(0.58-0.82)
1.43***
(1.18-1.73)
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, Ref reference
  2. Two-level GLMMs with multinominal link
  3. aAdjusted for child age and gender, father and mother’s educational attainment, household wealth index, caste/ethnicity, expected food shortage, family size, and clustering of children within wards.
  4. *p<0.05; ** p<0.01; ***p<0.001