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Table 7 Trend in sources of staple foods, resilience indicators, reproductive capital indicators, and source of income the Karnali Zone of Nepal after controlling for confounders a, 2009-2015

From: The impact of unconditional child cash grant on child malnutrition and its immediate and underlying causes in five districts of the Karnali Zone, Nepal – A trend analysis

Variables 2009 (Ref.) Dolpa AOR(95%CI) Jumla AOR(95%CI) Mugu AOR(95%CI) Humla AOR(95%CI) Kalikot AOR(95%CI) Karnali Zone AOR(95%CI)
2013 2015 2013 2015 2013 2015 2013 2015 2013 2015 2013 2015
Source of staple food b
Own production 1 2.13**
(1.22-3.70)
1.97**
(1.20-3.24)
1.17
(0.60-2.26)
1.02
(0.59-1.78)
1.09
(0.63-1.89)
0.61
(0.26-1.46)
1.03
(0.68-1.54)
1.47
(0.90-2.38)
0.10
(0.05-0.17)***
0.17***
(0.09-0.30)
0.84
(0.68-1.04)
1.09
(0.87-1.36)
Purchasing 1 5.45***
(3.93-7.55)
92.66*** (a)
(54.87-156.50)
4.07***
(2.83-5.84)
10.03***
(6.99-14.39)
1.42**
(1.10-1.85)
1.55*
(1.06-2.27)
0.98
(0.74-1.30)
8.78***
(6.47-11.92)
1.9***
(1.41-2.56)
2.50***
(1.93-3.25)
2.46***
(2.18-2.78)
6.06***
(5.30-6.93)
Food aid 1 0.09***
(0.06-0.13)
0.00(a)
(0.00-1.50*10192)
0.06***
(0.04-0.12)
0.00(a)
(0.00-6.98*10230)
1.53
(1.09-2.21)*
0.53*
(0.28-0.98)
0.18***
(0.13-0.25)
0.00(a)
(0.00-3.66*1039)
117.16***
(44.93-305.45)
1.03
(0.20-5.31)
0.33***
(0.29-0.39)
0.02***
(0.01-0.02)
Resilience indicators
Outmigration# 1 4.01
(0.66-24.53)
6.02*
(1.14-31.69)
5.26
(0.86-32.18)
8.50*
(1.67-43.39)
3.16
(0.77-12.89)
9.03*
(1.71-47.69)
2.08
(0.62-6.97)
2.42
(0.69-8.52)
0.88
(0.22-3.56)
0.90
(0.27-2.98)
2.08*
(1.13-3.84)
3.50***
(1.96-6.23)
Borrowing money* 1 1.55**
(1.17-2.06)
0.96
(0.74-1.25)
1.14
(0.82-1.57)
1.20
(0.90-1.60)
0.68**
(0.51-0.89)
1.84**
(1.23-2.75)
1.45**
(1.10-1.91)
1.88***
(1.39-2.56)
0.32***
(0.24-0.44)
0.39***
(0.30-0.51)
0.82**
(0.73-0.93)
0.97
(0.86-1.09)
Reproductive capital indicators#
Selling land 1 3.41
(0.29-40.44)
0.84
(0.04-17.17)
5.25*109(a)
(0.00-nr)
1.37*1010(a)
(0.00-nr)
0.35
(0.08-1.54)
0.19
(0.04-1.09)
1.97
(0.34-11.41)
0.76
(0.08-7.03)
1.44
(0.44-4.74)
0.31
(0.07-1.29)
1.39
(0.70-2.77)
0.85
(0.41-1.79)
Selling agricultural assets 1 5.49**
(1.75-17.23)
4.53**
(1.47-13.94)
5.25**
(1.86-14.79)
4.31**
(1.61-11.49)
2.31**
(1.25-4.29)
1.43
(0.65-3.16)
2.19**
(1.28-3.74)
1.32
(0.71-2.43)
0.63
(0.35-1.13)
0.43**
(0.26-0.74)
1.50**
(1.15-1.97)
1.31
(0.99-1.73)
Source of income
Crop farming b 1 3.27***
(2.46-4.34)
0.46***
(0.36-0.59)
0.65*
(0.46-0.91)
0.36***
(0.26-0.49)
1.64***
(1.25-2.14)
0.40***
(0.27-0.58)
1.90***
(1.49-2.42)
1.25
(0.95-1.63)
2.34***
(1.73-3.16)
0.41***
(0.31-0.53)
1.79***
(1.59-2.01)
0.51***
(0.45-0.57)
Livestock farming# 1 0.26**
(0.12-0.57)
1.90**
(1.21-3.00)
3.85***
(1.97-7.54)
2.91**
(1.53-5.56)
1.45
(0.81-2.62)
4.87***
(2.37-10.01)
1.16
(0.73-1.83)
1.77*
(1.12-2.80)
3.17*
(1.06-9.49)
13.92***
(5.62-34.46)
1.20
(0.92-1.57)
3.03***
(2.40-3.81)
Employment b 1 0.41***
(0.27-0.62)
1.02
(0.73-1.43)
0.76
(0.51-1.13)
0.91
(0.65-1.29)
1.47*
(1.05-2.06)
8.43***
(5.09-13.97)
0.54***
(0.42-0.71)
0.73*
(0.55-0.98)
0.60**
(0.43-0.85)
0.89
(0.67-1.19)
0.61***
(0.53-0.71)
1.08
(0.93-1.24)
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, Ref reference
  2. bTwo-level GLMMs with binominal link; # Two-level GLMMs with Poisson link
  3. aAdjusted for child age and gender, father and mother’s educational attainment, household wealth index, caste/ethnicity, expected food shortage, family size, and clustering of children within wards
  4. nr: IBM SPSS did not report the upper limit of 95%CI
  5. (a) The large AOR and its 95%CI are due to small sample sizes and the variance in data at each measurement time
  6. *p<0.05; ** p<0.01; ***p<0.001