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Table 3 Summary of the meta-analysis of associated factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Africa, 2013–2018

From: Prevalence and determinants of gestational diabetes mellitus in Africa based on the updated international diagnostic criteria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

No. Factors No of studies OR (95% CI) P value Heterogeneity Publication bias
(Egger’s test)
Range of result of by omitted one study at a time
Q-value Df (Q) p –value I2 p- value Minimum Maximum
1 Maternal age (≥ 30 year) 13 1.27 (0.810, 1.992) 0.297 249.831 19 <  0.001 90.5% 0.004 0.56 1.12
2 Maternal overweight and/obesity 12 3.51 (1.92, 6.40) 0.005 146.455 12 <  0.001 88.4% 0.231 0.65 1.86
3 Parity (≥ 2) 11 1.091 (0.628, 1.897) 0.758 121.267 16 <  0.001 79.3% 0.004 0.34 1.39
4 Having macrosomic baby 10 2.23 (1.12,4.44) 0.023 55.883 10 <  0.001 76.8% 0.017 0.42 1.65
5 Family history of diabetes 13 2.69 (1.84, 3.91) 0.005 84.227 16 <  0.001 70.0% 0.143 0.61 1.36
6 History of still birth 4 2.92 (1.23, 6.93) 0.015 12.751 3 0.005 76.5% 0.742 0.20 1.94
7 History of abortion 8 2.21 (1.68, 2.92) 0.000 13.285 8 0.102 35.9% 0.985 0.52 1.07
8 History of hypertension 9 2.49 (1.35, 4.59) 0.004 31.043 8 <  0.001 74.2% 0.952 0.30 1.52
9 Previous history of GDM 3 14.16 (2.39, 84.08) 0.004 5.619 2 0.060 64.4% 0.128 0.87 4.43