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Table 3 Multilevel regression results assessing effects of individual and community level characteristics on contraceptive use among women in Ethiopia, 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey

From: Individual and community level associates of contraceptive use in Ethiopia: a multilevel mixed effects analysis

Variables/ characteristics Null model Model I Model II Model III
Individual characteristics Community level characteristics Individual and community-level characteristics
OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
Educational level of women
 No formal education (Ref)     
 Primary   1.3(1.1, 1.5) **   1.2(1.0, 1.4)
 Secondary   1.4(1.1, 1.8) **   1.2(0.9, 1.5)
 Higher   1.5(1.1, 2.0) **   1.2(0.8, 1.6)
Wealth index
 Poor(ref)     
 Middle   1.9(1.5, 2.3) ***   1.4(1.1, 1.7) ***
 Rich   2.2(1.8, 2.6) ***   1.4(1.1, 1.7) ***
Age
 35–39(ref)     
 15–19   1.6(1.1, 2.2) **   2.1(1.5, 2.9) ***
 20–24   2.1(1.6, 2.7) ***   2.5(2.0, 3.2) ***
 25–29   1.7(1.3, 2.1) ***   1.8(1.5, 2.3) ***
 30–34   1.3((1.0, 1.6) *   1.4(1.1, 1.7) **
 40–44   1.0(0.8, 1.4)   1.0(0.8, 1.3)
 45–49   0.6(0.4, 0.9) *   0.6(0.4, 0.8) **
Number of living children
 None(ref)     
 1–4   3.6(2.7, 4.7) ***   3.6(2.8, 4.7) ***
 5–8   3.5(2.5,4.9) ***   4.0(2.8, 5.5) ***
  > =9   2.5(1.3, 4.8) **   3.2(1.7, 6.1) ***
Husband/partner’s occupation
 Did not work(ref)     
 Farming/unskilled   2.0(1.5, 2.6) ***   1.6(1.3, 2.1) ***
 Clerical/sales/services/skilled labor   2.1(1.6, 2.8) ***   1.9(1.4, 2.5) ***
 professional/technical/manager   1.9(1.4, 2.7) ***   1.9(1.4, 2.7) ***
 Others   1.5(1.0, 2.2) *   1.4(0.9, 2.0)
Exposure to mass media
 No(ref)     
 Yes   1.2(1.0, 2.2) *   1.1(1.0, 1.4)
Ever had a terminated pregnancy
 No(ref)     
 Yes   0.7(0.6, 0.9) *   0.7(0.6,0.9) **
Smokes cigarettes
 No(ref)     
 Yes   0.8(0.4, 1.5)   0.8(0.4, 1.6)
Respondent currently working status
 No(ref)     
 Yes   1.3(1.1, 1.4) ***   1.3(1.1, 1.5) **
Births in the last 3 years
 No birth(ref)     
 One birth   0.5(0.4, 0.6) ***   0.5(0.4, 0.6) ***
 Two and more births   0.2(0.1, 0.3) ***   0.3(0.2, 0.4) ***
Heard FP messages through media at least once
 No(ref)     
 Yes   1.2(1.0, 1.5) *   1.2(1.0, 1.4)
Visited Health Facility in the last 12 months
 No(ref)     
 Yes   1.4(1.3, 1.6) ***   1.3(1.1, 1.5) ***
Husbands desire for children
 Both wants the same(ref)     
 Husband wants more   0.8(0.7,0.9) **   0.8(0.7, 1.0) *
 Husband wants fewer   1.0(0.7, 1.2)   0.9(0.7, 1.2)
 Don’t know   0.8(0.7,0.9) **   0.8(0.7, 0.9) **
Region
 Tigray    1.3(0.8, 2.0) 1.3(0.9, 2.0)
 Afar    0.3(0.2, 0.6) *** 0.4(0.2, 0.6) ***
 Amhara    2.6(1.7, 4.0) *** 2.7(1.8, 4.1) ***
 Oromia    1.5(0.9,2.3) 1.5(1.0, 2.3)
 Somali    0.1(0.04, 0.2) *** .1(0.05, 0.2) ***
 Benishangul    1.3(0.8, 2.1) 1.3(0.8, 2.0)
 South Nations Nationalities and Peoples’ Region    2.0(1.3, 3.1) ** 2.1(1.4, 3.3) ***
 Gambela    0.8(0.5, 1.3) 0.8(0.5, 1.3)
 Harari    1.0(0.6, 1.6) 0.9(0.6, 1.4)
 Dire dawa    0.8(0.5, 1.3) 0.8(0.5, 1.3)
 Addis Ababa(ref)     
Place of residence
 Urban(ref)     
 Rural    0.5(0.4, 0.7) *** 0.7(0.5,0.9) *
Community-level women employment
 low(ref)     
 High    1.3(1.0, 1.5) * 1.1(0.9, 1.3)
Wealth index
 low(ref)     
 High    2.3(1.8, 2.9) *** 1.7(1.4, 2.1) ***
Media exposure
 low(ref)     
 High    1.4(1.1, 1.8) ** 1.2(0.9, 1.5)
Proportion of Muslims in the cluster
 low(ref)     
 High    0.6(0.5, 0.8) *** 0.6(0.5, 0.8) ***
Health facility visit
 Low(ref)     
 High    1.3(1.0, 1.6) * 1.1(0.9,1.4)
  1. *P < 0.05, ** P < 0.001, ***P < 0.0001