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Table 1 Distribution of the utilisation of breast cancer screening services

From: Wealth stratified inequalities in service utilisation of breast cancer screening across the geographical regions: a pooled decomposition analysis

Participants characteristics Africa Asia Europe North America South America Overall
Predisposing factors % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)
Age in years
40–44 years 54.07 (52.82, 55.31) 50.93 (49.99, 51.86) 72.50 (68.10, 76.50) 43.27 (41.59, 44.96) 31.55 (28.37, 34.91) 50.39 (49.72, 51.05)
  ≥ 45 years 45.93 (44.69, 47.18) 49.07 (48.14, 50.01) 27.50 (23.50, 31.90) 56.73 (55.04, 58.41) 68.45 (65.09, 71.63) 49.61 (48.95, 50.28)
Educational level
No education 8.28 (7.62, 8.99) 17.07 (16.38, 17.79) 0.20 (0.02, 1.63) 03.82 (03.22, 04.52) 02.33 (01.48, 03.67) 11.67 (11.25, 12.11)
Primary 41.21 (39.98, 42.44) 09.81 (09.27, 10.38) 46.72 (42.07, 51.44) 54.79 (53.09, 56.47) 26.40 (23.41, 29.62) 26.97 (26.39, 27.57)
Secondary 39.06 (37.85, 40.28) 47.88 (46.95, 48.82) 43.67 (39.07, 48.39) 29.96 (28.43, 31.54) 33.72 (30.48, 37.13) 42.03 (41.38, 42.69)
Higher 11.46 (10.69, 12.27) 25.24 (24.44, 26.06) 9.41 (7.00, 12.54) 11.43 (10.40, 12.56) 37.55 (34.20, 41.02) 19.32 (18.80, 19.85)
Head of the household
Female 58.37 (57.14, 59.59) 87.69 (87.06, 88.29) 97.5 (95.52, 98.62) 62.46 (60.80, 64.09) 86.44 (83.84, 88.68) 75.62 (75.05, 76.19)
Male 41.63 (40.41, 42.86) 12.31 (11.71, 12.94) 2.50 (1.38, 4.48) 37.54 (35.91, 39.20) 13.56 (11.32, 16.16) 24.38 (23.81, 24.95)
Age of respondent at 1st birth
  < 18 years 21.75 (20.74, 22.8) 14.18 (13.52, 14.87) 0.41 (0.09, 1.79) 23.68 (22.26, 25.16) 14.37 (12.00, 17.11) 17.64 (17.13, 18.17)
18–20 years 34.87 (33.69, 36.07) 32.09 (31.20, 33.00) 13.67 (10.72, 17.27) 33.72 (32.13, 35.34) 26.03 (22.98, 29.34) 32.58 (31.95, 33.22)
21–25 years 31.3 (30.16, 32.47) 40.36 (39.42, 41.31) 59.82 (55.09, 64.37) 30.01 (28.47, 31.59) 31.41 (28.14, 34.87) 36.13 (35.49, 36.79)
  > 25 years 12.07 (11.28, 12.91) 13.37 (12.72, 14.04) 26.10 (22.15, 30.48) 12.59 (11.51, 13.77) 28.19 (25.04, 31.57) 13.64 (13.18, 14.11)
Number of Births
  < 4 29.83 (28.7, 30.98) 19.68 (18.92, 20.46) 81.39 (77.44, 84.78) 42.77 (41.09, 44.46) 80.34 (77.39, 82.99) 29.82 (29.21, 30.44)
4–5 32.4 (31.24, 33.58) 35.53 (34.61, 36.46) 16.76 (13.53, 20.58) 32.72 (31.14, 34.33) 15.36 (12.99, 18.08) 33.03 (32.40, 33.67)
  > 5 37.77 (36.57, 38.99) 44.80 (43.84, 45.76) 1.85 (0.93, 3.66) 24.52 (23.08, 26.01) 04.30 (03.08, 05.98) 37.15 (36.50, 37.80)
Enabling factors
 Mass media exposure
No 23.29 (22.24, 24.36) 65.66 (64.77, 66.55) 49.03 (44.35, 53.74) 22.16 (20.78, 23.62) 15.76 (13.36, 18.50) 44.87 (44.21, 45.54)
Yes 76.71 (75.64, 77.76) 34.34 (33.45, 35.23) 50.97 (46.26, 55.65) 77.84 (76.38, 79.22) 84.24 (81.50, 86.64) 55.13 (54.46, 55.79)
 Health Insurance coverage
No 70.38 (69.23, 71.5) 82.87 (81.32, 84.31) 72.55 (68.15, 76.55) 70.03 (68.44, 71.56) 71.49 (69.23, 71.5) 72.82 (72.03, 73.60)
Yes 29.62 (28.50, 30.77) 17.13 (15.69, 18.68) 27.45 (23.45, 31.85) 29.97 (28.44, 31.56) 28.51 (28.50, 30.77) 27.18 (26.40, 27.97)
 Nutritional status
Underweight 4.33 (3.78, 4.96) 04.27 (03.84, 04.75) 1.12 (0.98, 2.23) 0.99 (0.70, 1.39) 4.23 (3.84, 4.75) 3.49 (3.22, 3.79)
Normal weight 35.23 (33.86, 36.63) 27.86 (26.87, 28.88) 36.28 (32.84, 41.94) 17.65 (16.38, 18.98) 27.86 (26.87, 28.88) 28.11 (27.42, 28.82)
Overweight 60.44 (59.01, 61.85) 67.86 (66.81, 68.90) 62.60 (58.07, 67.16) 81.37 (80.00, 82.66) 67.91 (66.81, 68.90) 68.39 (67.67, 69.11)
Community
Urban 45.91 (44.67, 47.15) 65.54 (64.65, 66.42) 45.61 (40.97, 50.33) 71.95 (70.39, 73.45) 84.50 (81.78, 86.88) 61.20 (60.55, 61.85)
Rural 54.09 (52.85, 55.33) 34.46 (33.58, 35.35) 54.39 (49.67, 59.03) 28.05 (26.55, 29.61) 15.50 (13.12, 18.22) 38.80 (38.15, 39.45)
 Economic status
Low 27.68 (26.58, 28.8) 24.80 (24.01, 25.62) 32.82 (28.56, 37.39) 23.18 (21.78, 24.65) 25.69 (22.73, 28.89) 29.19 (28.59, 29.79)
Moderate 40.76 (39.54, 41.99) 33.59 (32.71, 34.48) 45.28 (40.65, 50.00) 38.11 (36.47, 39.78) 38.69 (35.32, 42.18) 30.01 (29.41, 30.63)
High 31.56 (30.42, 32.73) 41.61 (40.69, 42.53) 21.89 (18.24, 26.04) 38.71 (37.06, 40.38) 35.62 (32.32, 39.06) 40.80 (40.15, 41.46)
Overall 13.84 (13.53, 14.17) 15.06 (14.80, 15.32) 80.82 (77.27, 83.94) 16.95 (16.43, 17.48) 25.26 (23.76, 26.83) 15.41 (15.22, 15.60)