Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of participants by randomization group (N = 1010)

From: Bulgarian consumers’ objective understanding of front-of-package nutrition labels: a comparative, randomized study

 Multiple Traffic LightsHealth Star RatingNutri-ScoreWarning LabelReference Intakes
Sex
 Male101(49.7)105(52.0)110(54.5)91(45.1)99(49.3)
 Female102(50.3)97(48.0)92(45.5)111(54.9)102(50.7)
Age, y
 18–3064(31.5)70(34.7)71(35.2)69(34.2)83(41.3)
 31–5087(42.9)74(36.6)79(39.1)74(36.6)65(32.3)
 51+52(25.6)58(28.7)52(25.7)59(29.2)53(26.4)
 Mean (SD)38.9(12.8)39.9(13.1)39.1(13.2)39.7(13.6)38.4(13.3)
Education
 Up to high school34(16.8)29(14.4)25(12.4)30(14.9)27(13.4)
 Trade certification or equivalent52(25.6)52(25.7)61(30.2)38(18.8)49(24.4)
 Undergraduate degree49(24.1)54(26.7)53(26.2)59(29.2)47(23.4)
 Graduate degree68(33.5)67(33.2)63(31.2)75(37.1)78(38.8)
Household income
 Low50(24.6)62(30.7)62(30.7)51(25.3)56(27.9)
 Medium77(37.9)58(28.7)71(35.1)74(36.6)79(39.3)
 High76(37.5)82(40.6)69(34.2)77(38.1)66(32.8)
Children ≤14 y in household
 No129(63.6)137(67.8)132(65.3)137(67.8)124(61.7)
 Yes74(36.4)65(32.2)70(34.7)65(32.2)77(38.3)
Grocery shopping responsibility
 No11(5.4)18(8.9)9(4.5)13(6.4)13(6.5)
 Shared71(35.0)74(36.6)79(39.1)57(28.2)68(33.8)
 Yes121(59.6)110(54.5)114(56.4)132(65.4)120(59.7)
Knowledge about nutrition
 None or very limited31(15.3)52(25.7)51(25.2)38(18.8)44(21.9)
 Average level138(68.0)119(58.9)112(55.5)132(65.4)126(62.7)
 High level34(16.7)31(15.4)39(19.3)32(15.8)31(15.4)
Self-assessed diet quality
 Very unhealthy7(3.5)9(4.5)13(6.4)11(5.5)8(4.0)
 Mostly unhealthy117(57.6)123(60.9)124(61.4)119(58.9)124(61.7)
 Mostly or very healthy79(38.9)70(34.6)65(32.2)72(35.6)69(34.3)
  1. Values refer to number (%) except when noted otherwise