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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate tests comparing the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs between participants with (n = 100) and without (n = 462) previous experience of vehicle-collision from a cross-sectional study of young pedestrians’ risky road crossing behaviors, Tehran, Iran (2018)

From: Still careless: findings from a cross-sectional study of young pedestrians’ risky road crossing behaviors

  Unadjusted Adjusted
Variables Experience of vehicle-collision Mean (SD) Mean Difference (95% CI) Univariate P-value $ Multivariate P-value # Univariate P-value $$ Multivariate P-value ##
Perceived risk Yes 48.18 (23.35) −5.76 (−10.92 to −0.61) 0.028 0.007 0.027 0.039
No 53.94 (23.87)    
Perceived severity Yes 80.10 (19.51) −6.08 (−9.50 to −2.66) 0.001 0.003
No 86.18 (14.85)    
Perceived behavioral control Yes 62.71 (17.29) −5.20 (−8.88 to −1.53) 0.006 0.018
No 67.91 (16.87)    
Subjective norms Yes 60.98 (23.07) −4.53 (−9.21 to 0.15) 0.058 0.89
No 65.51 (21.27)    
Behavioral intention Yes 57.46 (20.43) −5.35 (−9.98 to −0.71) 0.024 0.046
No 62.81 (21.60)    
Attitude toward behavior Yes 59.66 (23.50) −7.56 (−12.35 to −2.77) 0.002 0.005
No 67.22 (21.81)    
Attitude toward traffic regulations Yes 66.95 (16.28) −6.34 (−9.94 to −2.73) 0.001 0.006
No 73.29 (16.72)    
Road crossing behavior in potential risky situations Yes 65.19 (16.61) −5.37 (−8.62 to −2.12) 0.001 0.004
No 70.56 (14.65)    
  1. #: Multivariate Hoteling T2 Tests based on Wilks’ Lambda
  2. ##: Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) based on Wilks’ Lambda adjusting for sex and education
  3. $: Univariate Independent t-test
  4. $$: Univariate ANCOVA adjusting for sex and education
  5. Higher score indicates better condition