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Table 3 Association (odds ratio [95%CI]) between sleep patterns and cardiometabolic risk factors among men. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2012–2014)

From: Sex differences in the association between self-reported sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and cardiometabolic risk factors: cross-sectional findings from Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health

  Obesity
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Self-reported sleep duration
  ≤ 6 h 1.04 (0.93;1.18) 1.03 (0.91;1.16) 1.02 (0.90;1.15) 1.02 (0.90;1.16)
  > 6 - ≤ 8 h Reference category
  > 8 h 1.26 (0.90;1.73) 1.22 (0.87;1.62) 1.20 (0.86;1.65) 1.06 (0.86;1.65)
Insomnia symptoms
 No Reference category
 Yes 1.01 (0.87;1.17) 1.00 (0.86;1.16) 0.99 (0.85;1.15) 0.99 (0.84;1.16)
Short sleep + insomnia
 No (> 6 - ≤ 8 h and absence of insomnia) Reference category
 Yes 1.07 (0.89;1.27) 1.04 (0.87;1.27) 1.02 (0.85;1.23)
  Hypertension
Self-reported sleep duration
  ≤ 6 h 1.03 (0.93;1.14) 1.04 (0.94;1.16) 1.03 (0.93;1.15) 1.02 (0.91;1.14)
  > 6 - ≤ 8 h Reference category
  > 8 h 1.19 (0.89;1.59) 1.06 (0.78;1.44) 1.06 (0.78;1.43) 1.06 (0.78;1.43)
Insomnia symptoms
 No Reference category
 Yes 1.18 (1.04;1.34) 1.09 (0.96;1.25) 1.07 (0.94;1.23) 1.07 (0.93;1.23)
Short sleep + insomnia
 No (> 6 - ≤ 8 h and absence of insomnia) Reference category
 Yes 1.21 (1.04;1.41) 1.13 (0.97;1.33) 1.11 (0.94–1.30)
  High glycated hemoglobin
Self-reported sleep duration
  ≤ 6 h 0.99 (0.83;1.17) 0.97 (0.82;1.15) 0.95 (0.79;1.12) 0.93 (0.78;1.11)
  > 6 - ≤ 8 h Reference category
  > 8 h 1.07 (0.65;1.67) 0.88 (0.53;1.39) 0.87 (0.53;1.37) 0.87 (0.53;1.37)
Insomnia symptoms
 No Reference category
 Yes 1.25 (1.02;1.53) 1.11 (0.90;1.36) 1.04 (0.84;1.28) 1.06 (0.85;1.32)
Short sleep + insomnia
 No (> 6 - ≤ 8 h and absence of insomnia) Reference category
 Yes 1.19 (0.93;1.51) 1.05 (0.82;1.34) 0.98 (0.75;1.25)
  Hypertriglyceridemia
Self-reported sleep duration
  ≤ 6 h 0.98 (0.88;1.09) 0.97 (0.87;1.08) 0.96 (0.86;1.07) 0.93 (0.84;1.04)
  > 6 - ≤ 8 h Reference category
  > 8 h 1.65 (1.24;2.19) 1.60 (1.20;2.14) 1.59 (1.19;2.13) 1.60 (1.20;2.14)
Insomnia symptoms
 No Reference category
 Yes 0.98 (0.84;1.14) 1.13 (0.99;1.29) 1.13 (0.99;1.29) 1.17 (1.02;1.35)
Short sleep + insomnia
 No (> 6 - ≤ 8 h and absence of insomnia) Reference category
 Yes 1.14 (0.97;1.33) 1.12 (0.96;1.31) 1.11 (0.94;1.30)
  Low HDL-cholesterol
Self-reported sleep duration
  ≤ 6 h 1.02 (0.90;1.15) 1.01 (0.89;1.14) 0.99 (0.88;1.12) 1.01 (0.89;1.14)
  > 6 - ≤ 8 h Reference category
  > 8 h 0.98 (0.69;1.38) 0.95 (0.66;1.33) 0.93 (0.65;1.31) 0.93 (0.65;1.31)
Insomnia symptoms
 No Reference category
 Yes 0.98 (0.84;1.14) 0.96 (0.83;1.12) 0.93 (0.80;1.09) 0.93 (0.79;1.09)
Short sleep + insomnia
 No (> 6 - ≤ 8 h and absence of insomnia) Reference category  
 Yes 1.01 (0.84;1.21) 0.98 (0.82;1.18) 0.94 (0.78;1.13)
  1. Logistic regression analyses (odds ratio and 95% CI). Model 1 = crude model; Model 2 = Model 1 + age + education; Model 3 = Model 2 + physical activity + depression; Model 4 = Model 3 + insomnia or sleep duration