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Table 2 General characteristics of linked datasets in European countries in 2019

From: Innovative use of data sources: a cross-sectional study of data linkage and artificial intelligence practices across European countries

S/NoGeneral characteristics of linked datasetsEuropean countries
 Advanced
N = 24
In progress
N = 2
1Level of data linkage use/implementation 
 National level17AT, BE, BG, CY, CZ, EE, ES, FI, HR, LT, MT, NL, NO, SI, SK, SRB, UK (ENG, WL)IE, LV
 Sub-national level1IT 
 Both (National and Sub-national) levels3FR, PT, UK-SC 
 Metropolitan level4MT, PL, SI, UK-WL 
 All of above4DE, DK, NO, SW 
2Type of linkage 
 Deterministic12AT, CY, HR, FI, LT, MT, NL, NO, SI, SK, SRB, SWIE, LV
 Probabilistic1UK-SC 
 Combination of both (i.e., deterministic and probabilistic)11BE, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FR, IT, PL, PT, UK (ENG, WL) 
 None of the above1BG 
3Current status of linked data usage 
 Available and is used in routine16AT, BE, CY, CZ, DK, EE, FI, FR, LT, MT, NL, NO, PL, SI, SW, UK (ENG, SC, WL) 
 In progress of development4BG, ES, HR, PTIE, LV
 Partial in use & partial in progress of development2DE, SK 
 Available but not in use2IT, SRB 
4Type of approval to access 
 By law5AT, CZ, MT, NO, SW 
 By ethical committee7BE, ES, FR, IT, NO, PT, UK (ENG, SC, WL) 
 By register owner13BG, CY, ES, HR, FI, FR, IT, NO, PL, PT, SI, SK, SRB 
 Others (i.e., depend on linkage/data protection inspector/under conditions/not applicable (data linkage in safe environment)/by statistical authority7CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, LT, NLLV
5Type of accessibility 
 In routine/permanent15BE, BG, CZ, DK, EE, FI, FR, NL, NO, PL, PT, SI, SK, SW, UK (ENG, SC, WL) 
 Ad-hoc/Intermittent13BE, CY, DE, EE, ES, HR, IT, FR, MT, NO, PT, SK, SRB 
 Under conditions (i.e., restricted to certain projects for a limited period)6AT, EE, ES, FR, LT, NOLV
6Operate in real-time 
 Yes10DK, EE, FI, FR, LT, NO, SI, SK, SW, UK-SC 
 No15AT, BE, BG, CY, CZ, DE, ES, HR, IT, MT, NL, PL, PT, SRB, UK (ENG, WL)IE, LV
7Flexible to integrate new variables 
 Yes19AT, BG, CY, CZ, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, HR, MT, NL, NO, PL, PT, SI, SK, SW, UK (ENG, SC, WL) 
 No5BE, EE, IT, LT, SRBIE, LV