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Table 3 Use of artificial intelligence in routine public health activities in European countries in 2019

From: Innovative use of data sources: a cross-sectional study of data linkage and artificial intelligence practices across European countries

Use of Artificial Intelligence (AI)
N = 5
In progress
N = 9
Not yet
N = 16
European countriesDK, FI, NO, SW, UK-WLAT, CZ, DE, ES, FR, HR, PL, PT, SKBE, BG, CY, EE, GR, IE, IT, LT, LU, LV, MT, NL, RO, SL, SRB, UK (ENG, SC)
Level of application of AI
National levelDK, FI, NO, SW, UK- WL
Sub-national level 
Metropolitan levelDK, SW
Use of classical statistics without the use of AI
N = 19
In progress
N = 5*
Not yet
N = 8
European countriesBE, BG, CZ, DE, EE, ES, DK, FR, FI, IT, MT, NL, NO, PL, PT, SI, SK, SW, UK (ENG, SC, WL)AT, CZ, ES, HR, SKCY, GR, IE, LT, LU, LV, RO, SRB
Level of use of classical statistics without AI
National levelBE, BG, CZ, DK, EE, FR, FI, IT, NL, NO, PL, PT, SK, SW, UK- WL
Sub-national levelDE, ES, IT, PL, NO, SI, UK (ENG, SC)
Metropolitan levelDK, MT, NO
  1. *Two countries (CZ & SK) use classical statistic in routine (i.e., advanced) but also developing further this technology (i.e., in progress)