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Table 2 Descriptive statistics for all variables examined

From: Community-based social determinants of three measures of mortality in Rhode Island cities and towns

Measure Mean SD Min Max Number missing
Population Health
 Life expectancy at birth (LE0) 79.92 1.60 75.85 83.13 0
 Remaining life expectancy at age 65 (LE65) 19.99 0.93 17.59 21.92 0
 Age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) 896.5 89.2 722.0 1127.6 0
Demographics
 % White 90.9 10.0 49.1 99.5 0
 % Black 3.0 4.1 0.0 17.5 0
 % American Indian/Native Hawaiian 0.3 0.4 0.0 1.6 0
 % Asian 1.7 1.6 0.0 6.4 0
 % Other race 2.2 4.7 0.0 24.3 0
 % Multiracial 1.8 1.1 0.0 5.0 0
 % Hispanic/Latino/a 8.3 18.2 0.3 87.4 0
 Black-White Index of Dissimilarity 41.8 15.9 9.7 72.2 5
 % of population aged 16+ 81.7 2.9 74.6 87.0 0
 % of population aged 65+ 15.5 3.4 8.7 22.7 0
 % foreign born 7.7 7.9 1.6 41.8 0
 Population density (people per square mile) 2085 3199 91 16,172 0
 % of population considered “rural 27.6 36.9 0.0 100.0 0
 People per housing unit 2.2 0.4 0.6 2.7 0
 % of households headed by married couple 52.4 10.4 29.5 72.0 0
 % of family households headed by single female 10.4 4.0 3.4 21.7 0
Education
 % of adults with less than 9th grade education 4.9 5.5 0.0 30.8 0
 % of adults with less than high school education 12.6 8.6 2.3 48.2 0
 % of adults with at least a high school education 87.4 8.6 51.7 97.7 0
 % of adults with at least a bachelor’s degree 34.3 12.8 7.4 63.4 0
 % of adults with a graduate degree 13.5 6.6 2.0 30.7 0
Economics
 Median household income ($) 85,605 21,406 40,526 140,772 0
 Median home value ($) 310,062 140,488 167,600 1,000,000 0
 Median rent ($) 965 178 731 1403 0
 Poverty rate 5.9 5.4 0.6 24.6 0
 % on public assistance 7.1 6.8 0.0 30.7 0
 % unemployed 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0
 Gini index 0.43 0.04 0.34 0.53 0
 Mean commute time (minutes) 24.2 4.4 8.9 35.7 0
Crime rates (per 1000)
 All violent crimes 1.45 1.76 0.00 7.33 2
 Murder and non-negligent manslaughter 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.10 2
 Forcible rape 0.16 0.18 0.00 0.72 2
 Robbery 0.32 0.56 0.00 2.43 2
 Aggravated assault 0.95 1.07 0.00 4.13 2
 All property crimes 19.75 9.20 4.31 44.84 2
 Burglary 4.06 2.46 1.23 10.84 2
 Larceny 14.42 6.64 2.46 33.46 2
 Motor vehicle theft 1.28 1.55 0.00 6.54 2
 Arson 0.14 0.14 0.00 0.49 2
Environmental and recreational factors
 Number of Superfund sites 0.3 0.6 0 2 0
 Median age of housing structures 48.3 12.2 24.0 74.0 0
 % of households without plumbing 1.2 0.9 0.0 3.6 0
 % of land area used for public recreation 16.9 8.8 4.3 42.6 0
 Miles of bike lanes per 50 road miles 1.5 1.4 0.0 4.5 0
 % living near farmers market 50.2 32.9 0.0 99.6 0
 Fast food and convenience stores per square mile 4.3 7.4 0.1 37.2 0
 % of population living in food desert 31.9 28.0 0.0 100.0 0
 % of total area comprised of water 20.8 23.8 1.1 91.7 0
Retirement
 % of grandparental caregivers who are male 36.6 11.3 0.0 59.3 1
 % of grandparents responsible for grandchildren 29.8 20.8 0.0 78.0 1
 % of grandparents living in poverty 7.7 17.1 0.0 100.0 1
 Mean per capita retirement income ($) 24,985 6387 16,111 42,238 0