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Table 1 Socio-demographic, obstetric and neonatal characteristics of preterm and non-preterm babies

From: Incidence, risk factors and consequences of preterm birth – findings from a multi-centric observational study for 14 months in Nepal

Variables Preterm
(n = 5964)
Non-Preterm
(n = 54,778)
Total
(n = 60,742)
p-value OR
(95% CI)
Age of mother 23.53 ± 4.7 23.96 ± 4.33    
 20- < 35 years 4640 (77.8%) 46,077 (84.1%) 50,717 (83.5%) < 0.001 Ref
  < 20 years 1116 (18.7%) 7322 (13.4%) 8438 (13.9%) < 0.001 1.51 (1.41–1.62)
  > 35 years 208 (3.5%) 1379 (2.5%) 1587 (2.6%) < 0.001 1.50 (1.29–1.74)
Level of education (n = 50,424)
 Secondary and above 2587 (60.3%) 31,743 (68.8%) 34,330 (68.1%) < 0.001 Ref
 Illiterate 352 (8.2%) 2186 (4.7%) 2538 (5.0%) < 0.001 1.98 (1.75–2.23)
 Literate 572 (13.3%) 4763 (10.3%) 5335 (10.6%) < 0.001 1.47 (1.34–1.62)
 Basic education 776 (18.1%) 7445 (16.1%) 8221 (16.3%) < 0.001 1.28 (1.18–1.39)
Smoking (n = 50,422)
 No 3664 (85.5%) 41,071 (89.0%) 44,735 (88.7%)   Ref
 Yes 622 (14.5%) 5065 (11.0%) 5687 (11.3%) < 0.001 1.38 (1.26–1.51)
Type of fuel (n = 50,209)
 Clean 2886 (67.6%) 34,628 (75.4%) 37,514 (74.7%)   Ref
 Polluted 1384 (32.4%) 11,311 (24.6%) 12,695 (25.3%) < 0.001 1.47 (1.37–1.57)
Sex of the baby
 Boy 2962 (49.7%) 29,788 (54.4%) 32,570 (53.9%)   Ref
 Girl 3002 (50.3%) 24,990 (45.6%) 27,992 (46.1%) < 0.001 1.21 (1.15–1.27)
Multiple delivery
 No 5786 (97.0%) 54,576 (99.6%) 60,362 (99.4%)   Ref
 Yes 178 (3.0%) 202 (0.4%) 380 (0.6%) < 0.001 8.31 (6.78–10.19)
Parity
 Multipara 1084 (18.2%) 9325 (17.0%) 10,409 (17.1%) < 0.001 Ref
 Nullipara 3168 (53.1%) 26,647 (48.6%) 29,815 (49.1%) 0.55 1.02 (0.95–1.10)
 Primipara 1712 (28.7%) 18,806 (34.3%) 20,518 (33.8%) < 0.001 0.78 (0.72–0.85)
ANC visit during pregnancy (n = 49,898)
  < 4 visits 1362 (32.2%) 10,199 (22.3%) 11,561 (23.2%) < 0.001 1.65 (1.54–1.77)
  ≥ 4 visits 2867 (67.8%) 35,470 (77.7%) 38,337 (76.8%)   Ref
Time of first ANC visit (n = 49,898)
 First trimester 1537 (36.3%) 19,316 (42.3%) 20,853 (41.8%) < 0.001 Ref
 Second trimester 1818 (43.0%) 19,105 (41.8%) 20,923 (41.9%) < 0.001 1.20 (1.11–1.28)
 Third trimester 874 (20.7%) 7248 (15.9%) 8122 (16.3%) < 0.001 1.52 (1.39–1.65)
Major malformation
 No 5953 (99.8%) 54,742 (99.9%) 60,695 (99.9%)   Ref
 Yes 11 (0.2%) 36 (0.1%) 47 (0.1%) 0.003 2.81 (1.43–5.52)
Severe anaemia during pregnancy
 No 5915 (99.2%) 54,642 (99.8%) 60,557 (99.7%)   Ref
 Yes 49 (0.8%) 136 (0.2%) 185 (0.3%) < 0.001 3.33 (2.40–4.62)
Outcome (n = 60,062)
Pre-discharge mortality 460 (50.1%) 459 (49.9%) 919 (1.5%) < 0.001 10.60 (9.28–12.10)