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Table 1 The characteristics of the study participants in Monduli District in Tanzania, 2020 (n = 510)

From: Prevalence and determinants of hypertension among pastoralists in Monduli District, Arusha region in Tanzania: a cross-sectional study

Variables Mean ± SD or n (%) P-value
Overall Women Men
n = 510 n = 269 n = 241
Weight (kg) 67.1 ± 14.6 68.5 ± 16.9 65.5 ± 11.7 0.081
Height (cm) 162.9 ± 9 157.9 ± 7.3 168.1 ± 7.2 < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 83.8 ± 16.8 85.3 ± 19.1 81.8 ± 13.3 < 0.001
Hips circumference (cm) 97.6 ± 13.2 102.1 ± 16.9 92.6 ± 10.3 < 0.001
Waist hips ratio (WHR) 82.4 ± 14.6 85.3 ± 15.3 79.6 ± 13.2 0.027
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 127.8 ± 18.3 126 ± 18.5 129.6 ± 18.1 0.022
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78.1 ± 13.6 78.2 ± 12.8 78.1 ± 14.5 0.845
Pulse rate (beats/min) 78.9 ± 20.1 79.9 ± 22.1 77.8 ± 17.6 0.243
Number of meals 2.7 ± 0.5 2.7 ± 0.5 2.7 ± 0.5 0.351
Dietary diversity score (DDS) 4.4 ± 2.1 4.2 ± 2.2 4.4 ± 2.1 0.161
Age (years)
 Median (IQR) 36(52–25) 39(57–25) 34(50–25)  
 18–29 190(37.3) 94(34.9) 96(39.8) 0.003
 30–39 92(18) 45(16.7) 47(19.5)
 40–59 139(27.2) 67(24.9) 72(29.8)
 Above 60 89(17.5) 63(23.4) 26(10.8)
Educational attainment
 No education 110(21.6) 63(23.4) 47(19.5) 0.393
 Primary education 226(52.2) 136(50.6) 130(53.9)
 O level secondary 20(3.9) 8(2.9) 12(5)
 A level secondary 81(15.9) 47(17.5) 34(14.1)
 College/University 33(6.5) 15(5.6) 18(7.5)
Marital status
 Single 80(15.6) 34(12.6) 46(19.1) < 0.001
 Married/cohabiting 353(69.2) 172(63.9) 181(75.1)
 Divorced 32(6.7) 23(8.5) 9(3.7)
 Widow 45(8.8) 40(14.8) 5(2.1)
Physical activity (PA)
 Low 225(44.1) 135(49.8) 90(36.9) 0.002
 Moderate 86(16.8) 48(17.8) 38(15.4)
 High 199(39.1) 86(32.3) 113(47.7)
Body mass index (BMI)
 Underweight 42(8.2) 29(10.8) 13(5.4) < 0.001
 Normal 239(46.8) 80(29.7) 159(65.9)
 Overweight 126(24.7) 63(23.4) 63(26.1)
 Obesity 103(20.2) 97(36.1) 6(2.5)
Abdominal obesity (WHR)
 Normal 317(62.2) 140(52.1) 177(73.4) < 0.001
 Obesity 193(37.8) 129(47.9) 64(26.6)
Monthly income (Tsh)
 No income 140(27.4) 86(31.9) 54(22.4)  
  < 50,000 145(28.4) 95(35.3) 50(20.8) < 0.001
 50,000-200,000 100(19.6) 36(13.4) 64(26.6)
  > 200,000 125(24.5) 52(19.3) 73(30.3)
Smoking
 Ever experience 62(12.2) 12(4.5) 50(20.8) < 0.001
 Never experience 448(87.8) 257(95.5) 191(79.2)
Alcohol consumption
 Never 354(69.4) 197(73.2) 157(65.2) 0.048
 Occassional 27(5.3) 9(3.3) 18(7.5)
 Frequent 129(25.3) 63(23.4) 66(27.4)