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Table 2 Characteristics and findings of the included studies

From: Prevalence, incidence, and trends of childhood overweight/obesity in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic scoping review

  Author & date Study design Country Setting Sample size Age range (years) Gender Outcome reported Prevalence of overweight Prevalence of obesity Criteria for assessment of body composition
1 Armstrong et al., 2011 [63] Cross sectional South Africa Rural, urban 24,391 8–11 Male, female Prevalence, trend 13.0% 3.3% IOTF
2 Armstrong et al., 2017 [64] Cross-sectional South Africa Rural, urban 10,285 6–13 Male, female prevalence 15.4% IOTF
3 Baumgartner et al., 2013 [138] Placebo-controlled, double-blind intervention trial. South Africa Rural, urban 321 6–11 Male, female Prevalence 28% WHO
4 Craig et al., 2013 [65] Cross-sectional South Africa Rural 1519 7–15 Male, female Prevalence 9.2, 8.1, and 8.0% in males compared to 13.6, 13.4, and 25.8% in females aged 7, 11, and 15 years respectively using WHO 2007 reference criteria
9.2, 8.1, and 8.0% in males compared to 13.6, 13.4, and 25.8% in females aged 7, 11, and 15 years respectively using Cole et al. and IOFT
WHO
IOTF
NCHS/WHO
5 Feeley et al., 2013 [134] Longitudinal South Africa Urban 1298 13–17 Male, female Prevalence, trend 8.1% (Males) and 27.0% (Females) WHO
6 Ginsburg et al., 2013 [135] Longitudinal South Africa Urban 1613 15 Male, female Prevalence 8.0%(Males) and 25.0% (Females) IOTF
7 Kimani-Murage et al., 2010 [115] Cross-sectional South Africa Rural 3511 1–20 Male female Prevalence 18% in females compared to 4% in males IOTF
8 Kimani-Murage et al., 2011 [66] Cross-sectional South Africa Rural 1848 10–20 Male, female Prevalence 4% Boys) and 15% (Girls) IOTF
9 Kruger et al., 2011 [112] Cross-sectional South Africa Rural, urban 2157 1–9 Male, female Prevalence, trend 10% 4% WHO
10 Lesiapeto et al., 2016 [126] Secondary analysis South Africa Rural 2485 Under 5 Male, female Prevalence 16.1% WHO
11 Lundeen et al., 2015 [127] Secondary analysis South Africa Urban 1172 1–18 Male, female Prevalence, incidence, trend Boys = 19.1, 16.4, 9.9, 7.8, 5.7% and
Girls = 19.1, 12.2, 14.7, 17.8, and 19.1% at 1–2, 4–8, 11–12, 13–15, and 16–18 years respectively.
Boys = 8.8, 3.0, 6.0, 4.4%, 2.5 and
Girls = 8.1, 3.1, 6.4, 7.3, and 7.9% at 1–2, 4–8, 11–12, 13–15, and 16–18 years respectively.
WHO
12 Meko et al., 2015 [116] Cross-sectional South Africa Urban 415 13–15 Male, female Prevalence 6% WHO
13 Mokabane et al., 2014 [139] Case study South Africa Peri-urban 56 13–19 Female Prevalence 12.5% 3.6% BMI
14 Moselakgomo et al., 2017 [117] Cross-sectional South Africa Rural 1361 9–13 Male, female Prevalence Boys = 9.9% (CDC classification) and 2.6% (IOTF criteria)
Girls = 10.4% (CDC classification) and 1.0% (IOTF criteria)
Boys = 5.46% (CDC classification) and 0.7% (IOTF criteria)
Girls = 5.3% (CDC classification) and 0.6% (IOTF criteria)
CDC
IOTF
15 Munthali et al., 2016 [136] Longitudinal South Africa Urban 1824 5–18 Male, female Prevalence Girls = late onset overweight (15%)
Boys = early onset overweight to normal (6%)
Girls = early onset obesity to overweight (4.8%)
Boys = early onset overweight to obese (1.3%)
IOTF
16 Negash et al., 2017 [68] Cross-sectional South Africa Urban 1559 7–18 Male, female Prevalence 22.9% IOTF
17 Ngwenya et al., 2017 [67] Cross-sectional South Africa Urban 175 13–19 Male, female Prevalence 15.4% 8.6% BMI
18 Pienaar, 2015 [15] Longitudinal South Africa Rural, urban 574 6–9 Male, female Prevalence, Trend Did not report this 16.7% IOTF
19 Pretorius et al., 2019 [69] Cross-sectional South Africa Rural, urban 1785 6–12 Male, female Prevalence 27.3% WHO
20 Reddy et al., 2012 [113] Cross-sectional South Africa Rural, urban 4010 Mean = 16.5 Male, female Prevalence, Trend Males = rates increased from 6.3% in 2002 to 11.0% in 2008.
Females = rates increased from 24.3% in 2002 to 29.0% in 2008
Males = rates doubled 1.6% in 2002 to 3.3% in 2008
Females = rose from 5.0 to 7.5%
IOTF
21 Sedibe et al., 2018 [118] Cross-sectional South Africa Rural, urban 3490 11–15 Male, female Prevalence More females overweight and obese at both early and mid-adolescents compared to boys. Early adolescents = (rural: 17.34% vs. 9.52%; urban: 36.15% vs. 27.89%), and mid-adolescents = (rural 22.33% vs. 5.50%; urban: 28.5% vs. 12.82%) WHO
22 Steyn et al., 2011 [129] Secondary analysis South Africa Rural, urban 2469 1–9 Male, female Prevalence 24% of children among obese younger mothers WHO
IOTF
23 Symington et al., 2016 [130] Secondary analysis South Africa Rural, urban 519 3–9 Male, female Prevalence 12.0% WHO
IOTF
24 Tathiah et al., 2013 [131] Secondary analysis South Africa Rural 963 7–14 Female Prevalence 9% 3.8% IOTF
25 Zeelie et al., 2010 [119] Cross-sectional South Africa Rural, Urban 232 5–19 Male, female Prevalence 4.1% of the boys and 9.9% of the girls had a BMI above the cut-off points IOTF
26 Adegoke et al., 2009 [70] Cross-sectional Nigeria Semi-urban 720 6–18 Male, female Prevalence 2.8% 0.3% IOTF
27 Adesina et al., 2012 [76] Cross-sectional Nigeria Urban 960 10–19 Male, female Prevalence 6.3% 1.8% BMI
28 Akodu et al., 2012 [120] Cross-sectional Nigeria Urban 160 2–15 Male, female Prevalence Did not report on this Hemoglobin genotype SS subjects = 2.5%, and hemoglobin genotype AA controls =3.8% WHO
29 Ene-Obong et al., 2012 [121] Cross-sectional Nigeria Urban 1599 5–18 Male, female Prevalence 11.4% 2.8% IOTF
30 Fetuga et al., 2011 [74] Cross-sectional Nigeria Semi-urban 1690 6–16 Male, female Prevalence 3.0% Did not report on this CDC
WHO
31 Fetuga et al., 2011 [75] Cross-sectional Nigeria Semi-urban 1016 6–10 Male, female Prevalence Did not report on this 0.5% WHO
32 Maruf et al., 2013 [79] Cross-sectional Nigeria Urban 9014 2–18 Male, female Prevalence 6.1% 0.8% IOTF
33 Musa et al., 2012 [78] Cross-sectional Nigeria Rural, urban 3240 9–16 Male, female Prevalence 9.7% 1.8% IOTF
34 Nwaiwu et al., 2015 [122] Cross-sectional Nigeria Not specified 406 2–15 Male, female Prevalence 15.4% Did report this IOTF
35 Oduwole et al., 2012 [123] Cross-sectional Nigeria Urban 885 9–18 Male, female Prevalence 13.8% 9.4% CDC
36 Okagua et al., 2016 [81] Cross-sectional Nigeria Urban 2282 10–19 Male, female Prevalence 14.6% (Females)
11.4% (Males)
5.2% (Females)
3.8%(Males)
WHO
37 Omisore et al., 2015 [80] Cross-sectional Nigeria Not specified 1000 10–19 Male, female Prevalence 10.2% (Males)
5.3% (Females)
3.9% (Males)
2.0% (Females)
IOTF
38 Omuemu et al., 2010 [71] Cross-sectional Nigeria Urban 300 10–19 Male, female Prevalence 5.7% CDC
39 Opara et al., 2010 [72] Cross-sectional Nigeria Rural, urban 985 2.5–14 Male, female Prevalence 11.1 and 0.2% respectively in private and public schools WHO
40 Senbanjo et al., 2010 [73] Cross-sectional Nigeria Urban 570 5–19 Male, female Prevalence 1.9% WHO
41 Senbanjo et al., 2011 [114] Cross-sectional Nigeria Urban 570 5–19 Male, female Trend Did not report on this 5.0% general obesity WHO
42 Senbanjo et al., 2012 [77] Cross-sectional Nigeria Urban 423 10–19 Male, female Prevalence Did not report on this 24.5% central obesity WHO
43 Uwaezuoke et al., 2016 [124] Cross-sectional Nigeria Urban 2419 10–19 Male, female Prevalence Did not report this Twelve of 41 obese males (29.3%) and 30 of 96 obese females (31.3%) BMI
44 Mekonnen et al., 2018 [82] Cross-sectional Ethiopia Rural, urban 634 6–12 Male, female Prevalence 8.8% 3.1% WHO
45 Moges et al., 2018 [83] Cross-sectional Ethiopia Urban 1276 10–19 Male, female Prevalence 17.0% WHO
46 Sorrie et al., 2017 [84] Cross-sectional Ethiopia Urban 504 3–5 Male, female Prevalence 13.8% WHO
47 Tadesse et al., 2017 [85] Cross-sectional Ethiopia Urban 462 3–6 Male, female Prevalence 6.9% WHO
48 Teshome et al., 2013 [87] Cross-sectional Ethiopia Urban 559 10–19 Male, female Prevalence 12.9% 2.7% WHO
49 Wakayo et al., 2016 [86] Cross-sectional Ethiopia Rural, urban 174 11–18 Male, female Prevalence 10.3% WHO
50 Pangani et al., 2016 [24] Cross-sectional Tanzania Urban 1781 8–13 Male, female Prevalence 15.9% 6.7% WHO
51 Mosha et al., 2010 [88] Cross-sectional Tanzania Urban 428 6–12 Male, female Prevalence Did not report on this 5.6% in Dodoma compared to 6.3% in Kinondoni municipalities BMI
52 Muhihi et al., 2013 [16] Cross-sectional Tanzania Rural, urban 446 6–17 Male, female Prevalence Did not report on this Overall, 5.2% (6.3% in girls and 3.8% in boys) IOTF
53 Mushengezi et al., 2014 [125] Cross-sectional Tanzania Urban 582 12–19 Male, female Prevalence 22.2% WHO
54 Mwaikambo et al., 2015 [89] Cross-sectional Tanzania Urban 1722 7–14 Male, female Prevalence 10.2% 4.5% IOTF
55 Adamo et al., 2011 [62] Cross-sectional Kenya Rural, urban 179 9–13 Male, female Prevalence 6.8% of boys and 16.7% of girls in urban Kenya BMI
56 Gewa, 2010 [137] DHS Kenya Rural, urban 1495 3–5 Male, female Prevalence 18.0% 4.0% WHO
57 Kimani-Murage et al., 2015 [90] Cross-sectional Kenya Urban 3335 Under 5 Male, female Prevalence 8.8% WHO
58 Wachira et al., 2018 [91] Cross-sectional Kenya Urban 563 9–11 Male, female Prevalence 20.8% WHO
59 Choukem et al., 2017 [93] Cross-sectional Cameroon Urban 1343 3–13 Male, female Prevalence 12.5% (13.2% in girls and 11.8% in boys) WHO
60 Navti et al., 2014 [94] Cross-sectional Cameroon Rural, urban 557 5–12 Male, female Prevalence 17.0 and 17.8% in girls and boys respectively WHO
61 Tchoubi et al., 2015 [132] Secondary analysis Cameroon Rural, urban 4518 <  5 Male, female Prevalence 8.0% WHO
62 Wamba et al., 2013 [92] Cross-sectional Cameroon Urban 2689 8–15 Male, female Prevalence Ranged from 6.4 to 8.2% in boys and from 10.7 to 17.2% in girls Ranged from 1.4 to 5.5% in boys and from 2.4 to 8.6% in girls IOTF
WHO
CDC
BMI database
63 Adom et al., 2019 [96] Cross-sectional Ghana Urban 543 8–11 Male, female Prevalence 16.4% WHO
64 Kumah et al., 2015 [97] Cross-sectional Ghana Urban 500 10–20 Male, female Prevalence 12.2% 0.8% IOTF
65 Mohammed et al., 2012 [95] Cross-sectional Ghana Urban 270 5–15 Male, female Prevalence Did not report on this 10.9% (Girls = 15.0%, Boys = 7.2%) WHO
66 Dos Santos et al., 2014 [98] Cross-sectional Mozambique Urban, suburban 3374 8–15 Male, female Prevalence, Trend 5.0% (Boys)
11.2% (Girls)
6.0% (Boys)
9.1% (Girls)
WHO
67 Dos Santos et al., 2015 [99] Cross-sectional Mozambique Urban, suburban 323 10–15 Male, female Prevalence 7.5% (Boys)
21.0% (Girls)
IOTF
68 Nagwa et al., 2011 [100] Cross-sectional Sudan Urban 1138 10–18 Male, female Prevalence 10.8% 9.7% WHO
69 Salman et al., 2011 [101] Cross-sectional Sudan Urban 304 6–12 Male, female Prevalence 14.8% 10.5% CDC
70 Christoph et al., 2017 [102] Cross-sectional Uganda Rural, urban 148 11–16 Male, female Prevalence 1.4% WHO
71 Turi et al., 2013 [133] Secondary analysis Uganda Rural, urban 1099 <  5 Male, female Prevalence 13.5% WHO
72 Wrotniak et al., 2012 [103] Cross-sectional Botswana Rural, urban 707 12–18 Male, female Prevalence 12.3% 5.0% WHO
73 Juwara et al., 2016 [104] Cross-sectional Gambia Urban 960 13–15 Male, female Prevalence 22.8% in private schools and 4.5% in public schools WHO
74 Van den Berg et al., 2014 [105] Cross-sectional Lesotho Urban 221 16 Male, female Prevalence 8.3% of boys and 27.2% of girls WHO
CDC
IOTF
75 Caleyachetty et al., 2012 [106] Cross-sectional Mauritius Rural, urban 241 9–10 Male, female Prevalence 15.8% in boys and 18.9% in girls 4.9% in boys and 5.1% in girls IOTF
76 Bovet et al., 2010 [107] Cross-sectional Seychelles Rural, urban 8462 Mean ages; 9.2, 12.6 and 15.3 years Male, female Prevalence 37% of boys in private schools compared to 15% in public schools
33% of girls in private compared to 20% of those in public schools
IOTF
77 Sagbo et al., 2018 [108] Cross-sectional Togo Urban 634 8–17 Male, female Prevalence 5.2% 1.9% IOTF
78 Kambondo et al., 2018 [109] Cross-sectional Zimbabwe Rural, urban 974 6–12 Male, female Prevalence Did not report on this 13.8% in urban compared to 2.3% in rural areas IOTF
79 Muthuri et al., 2016 [110] Cross-sectional Kenya, South Africa Rural, urban 4725 9–11 Male, female Prevalence 18.8 and 30.6% in Kenya and South Africa respectively Did not report on this WHO
80 Peltzer et al., 2011 [128] Secondary analysis Ghana, Uganda Not specified 5613 13–15 Male, female Prevalence 10.4% (Girls) and 3.2% (Boys) 0.9% (Girls) and 0.5% (Boys) IOTF
81 Manyanga et al., 2014 [111] Cross-sectional Benin, Ghana, Mauritania and Malawi Not specified 23,496 11–17 Male, female Prevalence 8.7% in Ghana, 10.0% in Malawi, 11.2% in Benin, and 24.3% in Mauritania WHO