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Table 3 Multivariate logistic regression analyses with self-reported depression, major depression symptoms and global depression as the outcome

From: Are normoglycaemic individuals at risk of depression? The depression-dysglycaemic phenotype from a European population-based cross-sectional study

  Self-reported depression PHQ-9 major depression (score > 14) Global depression
Odd’s ratio (95% CI) p-value Odd’s ratio (95% CI) p-value Odd’s ratio (95% CI) p-value
Glucose status:
 NGR Reference   Reference   Reference  
 IFG 1.05 (0.71–1.55) 0.81 1.633 (0.28–9.40) 0.58 0.82 (0.54–1.25) 0.35
 NDM 0.52 (0.21–1.33) 0.18 0.87 (0.60–4.97) 1.00 0.59 (0.23–1.51) 0.27
 KDM 2.36 (1.12–4.96) 0.02 0.95 (0.50–2.39) 1.00 2.16 (0.97–4.80) 0.06
Adjusted Cofounding factors:
 Femalea 1.85 (1.26–2.71) < 0.01 1.59 (0.45–5.56) 0.47 1.61 (1.07–2.43) 0.02
 Age (years) 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.48 0.90 (0.85–0.95) < 0.01 1.00 (0.98–1.01) 0.64
 BMI (Kg/m2) 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 0.81 1.06 (0.98–1.14) 0.13 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 0.99
 FBG (mmol/L) 1.03 (0.92–1.15) 0.62 1.31 (0.26–6.44) 0.74 1.03 (0.92–1.15) 0.59
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 0.64 (0.18–2.24) 0.49 0.36 (0.01–18.43) 0.77 0.72 (0.23–2.29) 0.58
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 0.36 (0.10–1.26) 0.11 0.27 (0.01–48.54) 0.71 0.40 (0.12–1.31) 0.13
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 0.70 (0.41–1.19) 0.19 0.49 (0.02–10.77) 0.65 0.73 (0.44–1.20) 0.21
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.15 (0.63–7.34) 0.22 3.12 (0.01–44.34) 0.75 2.04 (0.66–6.33) 0.22
Education in years
  < =10 years 1.90 (1.05–3.45) 0.04 0.37 (0.22–13.98) 1.00 1.74 (0.93–3.29) 0.09
 11–13 years 1.73 (1.08–2.77) 0.02 0.61 (0.44–25.88) 1.00 1.62 (0.98–2.66) 0.06
  > =14 years Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Current smoking 1.99 (1.42–2.79) < 0.01 1.97 (0.70–5.53) 0.20 1.99 (1.38–2.85) < 0.01
Occupation
 Employed 0.71 (0.45–1.11) 0.13 0.20 (0.06–0.71) 0.01 0.75 (0.46–1.23) 0.26
 Unemployed 1.90 (0.65–5.52) 0.24 3.72 (0.56–24.81) 0.18 1.14 (0.31–4.21) 0.84
 Student 0.24 (0.05–1.11) 0.07 1.45 (0.23–7.89) 1.00 0.33 (0.07–1.58) 0.17
 Retired 1.18 (0.70–1.97) 0.54 1.08 (0.18–6.64) 0.93 1.20 (0.69–2.10) 0.53
 Domestic work Reference   Reference   Reference  
Medical history
 Coronary heart diseaseb 2.90 (1.35–6.21) < 0.01 1.20 (0.45–13.67) 1.00 3.43 (1.56–7.53) < 0.01
 Myocardial infarctionc 0.75 (0.29–1.93) 0.55 1.78 (0.98–16.98) 1.00 0.80 (0.31–2.09) 0.65
 Stroked 3.03 (1.13–8.09) 0.03 1.29 (0.67–18.32) 1.00 3.42 (1.19–9.84) 0.02
 Hypertensione 1.44 (1.00–2.06) 0.05 1.06 (0.33–3.36) 0.92 1.31 (0.89–1.93) 0.17
 Anti-depression treatmentf 1.12 (0.74–1.70) 0.59 0.47 (0.15–1.42) 0.18 1.38 (0.60–15.89) 1.00
  1. NGR Normoglycaemia
  2. IFG Impaired fasting glucose
  3. NDM Newly diagnosed diabetes
  4. KDM Known diabetes
  5. aMale as reference
  6. b No history coronary heart disease as the reference category
  7. c No history myocardial infarction as the reference category
  8. d No history stroke history as the reference category
  9. e No history of hypertension as the reference category
  10. f No history of anti-depression treatment as the reference category
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