Skip to main content

Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of women and prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding in Papua New Guinea, 2016–2018

From: Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Papua New Guinea: a population-based study using the 2016-2018 demographic and health survey data

Variable Sample N = 3198 EIB EIB
N % n %
Mother's age at childbirth
 Less than 20 193 6.04 94 48.7
 20–29 1725 53.94 1042 60.41
 30-49 1280 40.03 778 60.78
Mother's education
 No education 635 19.86 385 60.63
 Primary 1628 50.91 978 60.07
 Secondary or higher 935 29.24 551 58.98
Mother’s religion
 Orthodox 1045 32.68 625 59.81
 Protestants 1484 46.4 912 61.46
 Other 669 20.92 377 56.35
Wealth status
 Poorest 538 16.82 329 61.15
 Poorer 520 16.26 317 60.96
 Middle 628 19.64 390 62.1
 Richer 780 24.39 452 57.95
 Richest 732 22.89 426 58.2
Place of Residence
 Urban 722 2.58 410 56.79
 Rural 2476 77.42 1504 60.74
Region
 Southern region 961 30.05 607 63.16
 Highlands region 794 24.83 472 59.45
 Momase region 657 20.54 402 61.19
 islands region 786 24.58 433 55.09
Birth order of child
 1 759 23.73 420 55.34
 2–3 1308 40.9 804 61.47
 4+ 1131 35.37 690 61.01
Number of ANC visits
 No ANC 759 23.73 474 62.45
 1–3 776 24.27 466 60.05
 4+ 1663 52 974 58.57
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal delivery 3096 96.81 1887 60.95
 Caesarean section 102 3.19 27 26.47
Place of delivery
 Health facility 1992 62.29 1157 58.08
 Home 1206 37.71 757 62.77
Child size at birth
 Small 737 23.05 426 57.8
 Average 1208 37.77 742 61.42
 Large 1253 39.18 746 59.54
Skin-to-skin contact
 No 1542 48.22 862 55.9
 Yes 1656 51.78 1052 63.53
Frequency of reading newspaper/magazine
 Not at all 2084 65.17 1274 61.13
 Less than once a week 622 19.45 377 60.61
 At least once a week 492 15.38 263 53.46
Frequency of listening to radio
 Not at all 2072 64.79 1258 60.71
 Less than once a week 582 18.2 344 59.11
 at least once a week 544 17.01 312 57.35
Frequency of watching Television
 Not at all 2480 77.55 1494 60.24
 Less than once a week 305 9.54 194 63.61
 At least once a week 413 12.91 226 54.72
  1. Source: PDHS (2016–2018)