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Table 2 Crude (unadjusted) and adjusted odds ratios of determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Papua New Guinea, 2016–2018

From: Determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Papua New Guinea: a population-based study using the 2016-2018 demographic and health survey data

Variables EIB
COR[95%CI] AOR[95%CI]
Mother's age at childbirth
 Less than 20 Ref Ref
 20–29 1.607**[1.192,2.165] 1.583**[1.147,2.185]
 30+ 1.632**[1.205,2.212] 1.631**[1.140,2.335]
Mother's education
 No education Ref  
 Primary 0.977 [0.810,1.179]
 Secondary or higher 0.932 [0.758,1.145]
Mother’s religion
 Orthodox Ref  
 Protestants 1.071 [0.911,1.260]
 Other 0.868 [0.713,1.056]
Wealth
 Poorest Ref  
 Poorer 0.992 [0.775,1.270]
 Middle 1.041 [0.821,1.319]
 Richer 0.875 [0.700,1.095]
 Richest 0.884 [0.705,1.110]
Residence
 Urban Ref  
 Rural 1.177 [0.995,1.393]  
Region
 Southern region Ref Ref
 Highlands region 0.855 [0.705,1.037] 0.87 [0.713,1.060]
 Momase region 0.919 [0.749,1.128] 0.869 [0.703,1.075]
 Islands region 0.715***[0.590,0.867] 0.690***[0.565,0.842]
Birth order of child
 1 Ref Ref
 2–3 1.288** [1.074,1.544] 1.146 [0.940,1.398]
 4+ 1.263* [1.048,1.522] 1.084 [0.853,1.378]
Number of ANC visits
 No ANC Ref Ref
 1–3 0.904 [0.736,1.110]
 4+ 0.85 [0.713,1.014]
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal delivery Ref Ref
 Caesarean section 0.231***[0.148,0.360] 0.286***[0.182,0.451]
Place of delivery
 Health facility 0.822** [0.710,0.952] 0.752** [0.624,0.905]
 Home Ref Ref
Child size at birth
 Small Ref Ref
 Average 1.162 [0.965,1.401]
 Large 1.074 [0.893,1.292]
Skin-to-skin contact
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 1.374***[1.192,1.583] 1.640***[1.385,1.942]
Frequency of reading newspaper/magazine
 Not at all Ref Ref
 Less than once a week 0.978 [0.814,1.175] 0.994 [0.812,1.218]
 At least once a week 0.730** [0.599,0.890] 0.781*[0.619,0.986]
Frequency of watching TV
 Not at all Ref Ref
 Less than once a week 1.153 [0.901,1.476] 1.141 [0.875,1.488]
 At least once a week 0.798*[0.647,0.984] 0.885 [0.692,1.131]
Frequency of listening to radio
 Not at all Ref  
 Less than once a week 0.935 [0.775,1.128]
 At least once a week 0.87 [0.719,1.054]
N   3198
pseudo R2   0.028
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, Ref reference, COR Crude Odds Ratio, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio
  2. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets
  3. Source: PDHS (2016–2018)