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Table 1 Patient demographics (mean, standard deviation, number, frequency and p-value) of the total study population (n = 182) and per country (the Netherlands, France, the United Kingdom, Spain and elsewhere (Germany or Italy)), 2019

From: Health-related quality of life of multiple sclerosis patients: a European multi-country study

  Total
(n = 182)
The Netherlands (n = 88) France
(n = 58)
The United Kingdom (n = 15) Spain
(n = 10)
Elsewhere (n = 11) P-value
Age, mean (±SD) 43.09 (10.53) 43.97 (10.27) 40.88 (10.57) 47.6 (9.39) 42.90 (11.37) 41.73 (12.08) 0.237a
Age at diagnosis, mean (±SD) 34.12 (10.36) 35.18 (10.3) 31.22 (9.53) 41.6 (10.17) 31.67 (11.04) 32.75 (9.84) 0.006a*
Time since diagnosis, mean (±SD)c 8.97 (7.8) 8.78 (7.33) 9.66 (8.61) 6 (4.31) 9.8 (9.5) 10.18 (927) 0.834a
Gender, n (%)        0.746b
 Male 39 (21.43) 21 (23.86) 9 (15.52) 3 (20.00) 3 (33.00) 3 (27.27)  
 Female 142 (78.02) 66 (75.00) 49 (84.48) 12 (80.00) 7 (70.00) 8 (72.73)  
 Prefer not to say 1 (0.55) 1 (1.14)      
Type of MS, n (%)        0.649b
 CIS 2 (1.10)   2 (3.45)     
 RRMS 146 (80.22) 70 (79.55) 47 (81.03) 10 (66.67) 9 (90.00) 10 (90.91)  
 PPMS 17 (9.34) 10 (11.36) 4 (6.90) 3 (20.00) 1 (10.00) 1 (9.09)  
 SPMS 17 (9.34) 8 (9.09) 5 (8.62) 2 (13.33)    
EDSS, n (%)        0.070b
 EDSS <= 2.5 45 (24.73) 12 (13.64) 20 (34.48) 3 (20.00) 6 (60.00) 4 (36.36)  
 EDSS 3–6.5 35 (19.23) 15 (17.05) 12 (20.69) 4 (26.67) 2 (20.00) 2 (18.18)  
 EDSS > = 6 26 (14.29) 14 (15.91) 6 (10.34) 6 (40.00) 2 (20.00)   
 Unknown 58 (31.87) 30 (34.09) 20 (34.48) 2 (13.33)   4 (36.36)  
 Missing 18 (9.89) 17 (19.32)     1 (9.09)  
Marital status, n (%)        0.986b
 Single 36 (19.78) 17 (19.32) 13 (21.41) 3 (20.00) 1 (10.00) 2 (18.18)  
 Partnered 42 (23.08) 21 (23.86) 13 (21.41) 5 (33.33) 2 (20.00) 1 (9.09)  
 Married 96 (52.75) 44 (50.00) 30 (51.72) 7 (46.67) 7 (70.00) 8 (72.73)  
 Divorced 7 (3.85) 5 (5.68) 2 (3.45)     
 Widowed 1 (0.55) 1 (1.14)      
Educational level, n (%)        0.000b
 Primary education 1 (0.55)     1 (10.00)   
 Secondary education 13 (7.14) 9 (10.23)   3 (20.00)   1 (9.09)  
 Vocational/technical education 67 (36.82) 44 (50.00) 14 (24.14) 4 (26.67) 3 (30.00) 2 (18.18)  
 University 95 (52.20) 35 (39.77) 41 (70.69) 6 (40.00) 5 (50.00) 8 (72.73)  
 Other 6 (3.30)   3 (5.17) 2 (13.33) 1 (10.00)   
Nationality, n (%)
 British 14 (7.69)    14 (93.33)    
 French 59 (32.42)   57 (98.28)    2 (18.18)  
 Dutch 91 (50.00) 87 (98.86) 1 (1.72)    3 (27.27)  
 Spanish 9 (4.95)     9 (90.00)   
 Other 9 (4.95) 1 (1.14)   1 (6.67) 1 (10.00) 6 (54.55)  
  1. MS Multiple sclerosis, CIS Clinically isolated syndrome, RRMS Relapsing-remitting MS, PPMS Primary progressive MS, SPMS Secondary progressive MS, EDSS Expanded Disability Status Scale, a: Kruskal-Wallis test, b: Fisher’s exact test, c: Time since diagnosis was calculated by subtracting the age at diagnosis from the current age, *Significant difference in mean age at diagnosis between France and the United Kingdom (p = 0.002) using Dunn’s test and Bonferroni correction