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Table 2 Problems in the EQ-5D-5L dimensions and health utility (mean, standard deviation, number, frequency and p-value) of the total study population and according to country of residence (the Netherlands, France, the United Kingdom, Spain and elsewhere (Germany or Italy)), 2019

From: Health-related quality of life of multiple sclerosis patients: a European multi-country study

  Total (n = 182) The Netherlands (n = 88) France (n = 58) The United Kingdom (n = 15) Spain (n = 10) Elsewhere (n = 11) c P-value
Mobility, n (%)        0.086b
 No problems 47 (25.82) 15 (17.05) 21 (36.21) 1 (6.67) 6 (60.00) 4 (36.36)  
 Slight problems 45 (24.73) 25 (28.41) 12 (20.69) 3 (20.00) 1 (10.00) 4 (36.36)  
 Moderate problems 57 (31.32) 29 (32.95) 16 (27.59) 6 (40.00) 3 (30.00) 3 (27.27)  
 Severe problems 29 (15.93) 17 (19.32) 7 (12.07) 5 (33.33)    
 Unable to walk 4 (2.20) 2 (2.27) 2 (3.45)     
Self-care, n (%)        0.094b
 No problems 117 (64.29) 50 (56.82) 44 (75.86) 5 (33.33) 9 (90.00) 9 (81.82) I
 Slight problems 38 (20.88) 21 (23.86) 10 (17.24) 4 (26.67) 1 (10.00) 2 (18.18)  
 Moderate problems 20 (10.99) 12 (13.64) 3 (5.17) 5 (33.33)    
 Severe problems 4 (2.20) 3 (3.41)   1 (6.67)    
 Unable to wash or dress myself 3 (1.65) 2 (2.27) 1 (1.72)     
Usual activities, n (%)        0.254b
 No problems 28 (15.38) 10 (11.36) 11 (18.97) 1 (6.67) 3 (30.00) 3 (27.27)  
 Slight problems 44 (24.18) 19 (21.59) 16 (27.59) 2 (13.33) 4 (40.00) 3 (27.27)  
 Moderate problems 80 (43.96) 39 (44.32) 27 (46.55) 8 (53.33) 2 (20.00) 4 (36.36)  
 Severe problems 27 (14.84) 18 (20.45) 4 (6.90) 3 (20.00) 1 (10.00) 1 (9.09)  
 Unable to do my usual activities 3 (1.65) 2 (2.27)   1 (6.67)    
Pain / discomfort, n (%)        0.529b
 No pain 27 (14.84) 17 (19.32) 5 (8.62) 1 (6.67) 3 (30.00) 1 (9.09)  
 Slight pain 62 (34.07) 27 (30.68) 23 (39.66) 4 (26.67) 3 (30.00) 5 (45.45)  
 Moderate pain 60 (32.97) 25 (28.41) 21 (36.21) 6 (40.00) 4 (40.00) 4 (36.36)  
 Severe pain 29 (15.93) 18 (20.45) 7 (12.07) 3 (20.00)   1 (9.09)  
 Extreme pain 4 (2.20) 1 (1.14) 2 (3.45) 1 (6.67)    
Anxiety / depression, n (%)     .    0.061b
 No problems 75 (41.21) 48 (54.55) 14 (24.14) 6 (40.00) 4 (40.00) 3 (27.27)  
 Slight problems 50 (27.47) 19 (21.59) 21 (36.21) 4 (26.67) 3 (30.00) 3 (27.27)  
 Moderate problems 37 (20.33) 14 (15.91) 12 (20.69) 4 (26.67) 2 (20.00) 5 (45.45)  
 Severe problems 17 (9.34) 7 (7.95) 8 (13.79) 1 (6.67) 1 (10.00)   
 Extremely anxious/depressed 3 (1.65)   3 (5.17)     
Health utility, mean (SD) 0.65 (0.26) .58 (0.28) .76 (0.22) 0.48 (0.25) 0.78 (0.14) 0.68 (0.19) < 0.001a*
  1. a Kruskal-Wallis test, b Fisher’s exact test, SD Standard deviation c Index calculated with the Dutch tariff since n = 8/11 filled out the Dutch version of the survey. *: Significant difference in health utility scores between France and the Netherlands (p < 0.001), France and the United Kingdom (p < 0.001), the United Kingdom and Spain (p = 0.021), based on Dunn’s test and Bonferroni correction