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Table 3 The MSQOL-54 and SF-36 scores (mean, standard deviation and p-value) of the total study population and according to country of residence (the Netherlands, France, the United Kingdom, Spain and elsewhere (Germany or Italy)), 2019

From: Health-related quality of life of multiple sclerosis patients: a European multi-country study

  Total
(n = 182)
The Netherlands (n = 88) France
(n = 58)
The United Kingdom (n = 15) Spain
(n = 10)
Elsewhere (n = 11) P-value a
MSQOL-54
Physical health composite score, mean (SD) 42.54 (17.15) 42.07 (16.72) 42.14 (16.73) 31.89 (15.18) 55.65 (16.98) 49.97 (17.61) 0.017I
 Physical function 54.86 (30.63) 49.55 (29.43) 63.85 (30.35) 28.74 (26.65) 72.00 (18.74) 70.00 (24.49) < 0.000II
 Health perception 38.8 (22.56) 38.42 (24.19) 35.93 (18.73) 34.53 (18.59) 54.17 (22.62) 48.75 (27.48) 0.177
 Energy/ fatigue 35.88 (19.86) 38.95 (20.79) 30.41 (17.51) 27.47 (12.18) 44.20 (21.05) 44.00 (22.77) 0.022
 Role limitations – physical 30.77 (37.35) 26.04 (34.06) 35.06 (39.70) 16.67 (30.86) 60.00 (44.41) 38.64 (39.31) 0.043III
 Pain 65.81 (25.7) 68.22 (25.48) 63.16 (26.08) 53.89 (30.1) 72.00 (15.03) 71.06 (24.18) 0.388
 Sexual function combined 65.89 (27.13) 70.17 (26.65) 60.49 (24.76) 49.4 (32.44) 76.67 (26.88) 71.22 (26.45) 0.013
 Sexual function male 65.57 (29.27) 63.34 (30.64) 68.53 (26.61) 47.23 (41.12) 80.56 (26.79) 75.01 (25.00) 0.769
 Sexual function female 65.97 (26.64) 72.19 (25.26) 59.01 (24.41) 50 (32.06) 75.00 (28.87) 69.80 (28.50) 0.008IV
 Health distress 54.95 (24.59) 56.33 (24.56) 50.34 (24.88) 53 (22.82) 69.50 (28.03) 57.73 (19.02) 0.251
Mental health composite score, mean (SD) 58.26 (21.48) 62.15 (19.89) 51.93 (22.34) 54.98 (23.1) 65.98 (25.00) 57.64 (17.83) 0.060V
 Health distress 54.95 (24.59) 56.33 (24.56) 50.34 (24.88) 53 (22.82) 69.50 (28.03) 57.73 (19.02) 0.251
 Overall quality of life 58.51 (19.06) 60.98 (18.48) 55.83 (20.07) 48.11 (19.05) 64.08 (14.94) 61.29 (17.08) 0.082
 Emotional well-being 62.53 (21.01) 68.09 (18.45) 53.36 (22.06) 60 (22.32) 66.00 (24.96) 66.64 (13.84) 0.003VI
 Role limitations – emotional 57.04 (43.51) 63.22 (42.54) 47.95 (42.73) 53.33 (46.80) 70.00 (42.89) 48.48 (47.99) 0.195
 Cognitive function 54.52 (24.85) 56.19 (24.06) 51.18 (23.85) 58.00 (32.34) 58.50 (23.46) 50.45 (28.24) 0.610
Change in health 44.23 (26.29) 47.16 (29.47) 43.97 (23.09) 31.67 (19.97) 52.5 (27.51) 31.82 (11.68) 0.079
Satisfaction with sexual function 52.63 (33.47) 51.42 (36.03) 51.29 (28.65) 40.38 (36.14) 72.5 (34.26) 65.91 (25.67) 0.121
SF-36
Physical composite scale, mean (SD) 46.82 (22.60) 44.71 (21.25) 48.56 (22.30) 32.90 (19.38) 65.10 (22.34) 56.9 (26.05) 0.007VII
Mental composite scale, mean (SD) 53.11 (22.45) 57.02 (21.09) 46.40 (22.57) 44.54 (22.23) 65.69 (25.22) 57.25 (20.17) 0.016VIII
  1. MSQOL-54 Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life −54 instrument, SF-36 Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36. a Kruskal-Wallis test and post-hoc analysis using Dunn’s test and Bonferroni correction. I Significant difference in mean physical health composite score between the United Kingdom and Spain (p = 0.007); II Significant difference in mean physical function scores between the United Kingdom and France, the United Kingdom and elsewhere and the United Kingdom and Spain (p = < 0.000 for all three situations), and France and the Netherlands (p = 0.04); III Significant differences in mean role limitations physical between the United Kingdom and Spain (p = 0.029); IV Significant difference in mean sexual function female between France and elsewhere (p = 0.014); V Significant difference in mean mental health composite score between France and the Netherlands (p = 0.046); VI Significant difference in mean emotional well-being score between France and the Netherlands (p < 0.000); VII Sig difference between the United Kingdom and Spain (p = 0.003), almost reaching significance difference between the United Kingdom and elsewhere (p = 0.057), and the Netherlands and Spain (p = 0.059); VIII Almost reaching sig difference between France and Spain (p = 0.058). The sample size varied somewhat across the scales and the scores were calculated by excluding missing data [11]. For 27 questions the range of missing data was 0.55–2.75% (n = 1 to n = 5). Additionally, the range of missing data for four out of five health perception scale questions was higher (n = 20 to n = 54; 14.83–29.67%)
  2. Missing data: The sample size varied somewhat across the domains, the composite scores were calculated from the domains by excluding missing data. Missing data were found in physical health function question 3 (0.55%, n = 1 from the UK), physical health function question 5 (0.55%, n = 1 from FR), physical health function question 8 (1.65%, n = 3 from the NL), physical health function question 10 (0.55%, n = 1 from the NL), health perceptions question 34 (25.27%, n = 4, n = 7, n = 31, n = 2, and n = 2 from the UK, FR, NL, SP and elsewhere, respectively), health perceptions question 35 (10.99%, n = 3, n = 6, n = 9, n = 2 from the UK, FR, NL and SP country of residence, respectively), health perceptions question 36 (29.67%, n = 3, n = 15, n = 30, n = 4, n = 2 from the UK, FR, NL, SP and elsewhere, respectively), health perceptions question 37 (14.83%, n = 2, n = 12, n = 11, n = 4, n = 2 from the UK, FR, NL and SP country of residence, respectively), energy/fatigue question 23 (0.55%, n = 1 from SP), energy/fatigue question 27 (0.55%, n = 1 from FR), energy/fatigue question 29 (1.10%, n = 1, n = 1 from FR and NL respectively), energy/fatigue question 32 (1.65%, n = 3 from FR), role limitations physical question 13 (1.10%, n = 2 from FR), role limitations physical question 14 (0.55%, n = 2 from NL), role limitations physical question 15 (0.55%, n = 1 from NL), role limitations physical question 16 (1.10%, n = 2 from NL), sexual function male (0.55%, n = 1 from NL), sexual function female (0.55%, n = 1 from UK), satisfaction with sexual function (1.10%, n = 2 from UK), health distress question 39 and 40 (0.55%, n = 1 from NL in both cases), overall quality of life (0.55%, n = 1 from FR), emotional well-being question 28 (2.20%, n = 1, n = 2, n = 1 from FR, NL and elsewhere, respectively), emotional well-being question 30 (0.55%, n = 1 from FR), role limitations emotional question 17 (1.10%, n = 1, n = 1 from FR and NL, respectively), role limitations emotional question 18 (1.65%, n = 2, n = 1 from FR and NL, respectively), role limitations emotional question 19 (2.20%, n = 2, n = 2 from FR and NL, respectively), cognitive function question 42 (0.55%, n = 1 from SP), cognitive function question 43 (1.10%, n = 2 from ES), cognitive function question 44 (1.65%, n = 1, n = 1, n = 1 from FR, NL and SP, respectively), cognitive function question 45 (2.75%, n = 1, n = 4 from FR and SP, respectively).