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Table 4 Linear regression estimates: predictors of health utility and the MSQOL-54 composite scores of the total study population (the Netherlands, France, the United Kingdom, Spain and elsewhere (Germany or Italy)), 2019

From: Health-related quality of life of multiple sclerosis patients: a European multi-country study

  Health utility Univariate Health utility Multivariate a PHCS Univariate PHCS Multivariate MHCS Univariate MHCS Multivariate
Age (years) −0.006 (0.002)***   −0.257 (0.120)**   0.149 (0.154)  
Age at diagnosis (years) −0.007 (0.002)**   −0.159 (0.124)   −0.010 (0.156)  
Time since diagnosis (years) −0.000 (0.003)   −0.190 (0.163)   0.282 (0.205)  
Gender (female vs. male) 0.055 (0.047)   0.482 (3.098)   −3.742 (3.883)  
Marital status
 Single
  Partnered 0.119 (0.061) *   3.770 (3.923)   6.816 (4.958)  
  Married 0.084 (0.052)   5.372 (3.384)   7.889 (4.289)*  
  Divorced −0.070 (0.110)   −4.081 (7.097)   9.444 (8.921)  
  Widowed 0.171 (0.280)   −3.549 (17.383)   16.736 (21.807)  
Educational level
 Primary education
  Secondary education −0.296 (0.274)   −38.651 (17.450)**   −23.068 (22.460)  
  Vocational/technical education −0.223 (0.266)   −33.782 (16.940)**   −25.104 (21.803)  
  University −0.119 (0.265)   −27.890 (16.905)   −24.458 (21.759)  
  Other −0.160 (0.285)   −32.622 (18.163)*   −24.722 (23.377)  
Country of residence
 United Kingdom
  France 0.281 (0.073)*** 0.131 (0.034)*** 10.251 (4.968)**   −3.051 (6.137)  
  The Netherlands 0.098 (0.070)   10.174 (4.800)** 5.364 (2.445)** 7.168 (5.912)  
  Spain 0.293 (0.103)***   23.758 (6.907)*** 11.074 (5.002)*** 11.000 (8.633)  
  Elsewhere 0.195 (0.100)*   18.075 (6.722)***   2.663 (8.395)  
Type of MSI
 CIS / RRMS
  PPMS −0.387 (0.062)*** −0.215 (0.058)*** −21.055 (4.219)*** −13.024 (4.208)*** −17.066 (5.343)*** −17.815 (5.326)***
  SPMS −0.143 (0.062)**   −9.204 (4.105)**   7.183 (5.343)  
EDSS
 EDSS <= 2.5
  EDSS 3–5.5 −0.161 (0.051)*** −0.129 (0.048)*** −12.436 (3.482)*** −11.320 (3.419)*** − 1.415 (4.847)  
  EDSS > = 6 −0.485 (0.056)*** − 0.383 (0.056)*** −25.362 (3.854)*** −21.194 (3.997)*** −7.789 (5.294)  
  Unknown / missing −0.151 (0.043)*** −0.113 (0.040)*** −11.534 (2.906)*** −10.677 (2.851)*** −7.121 (4.064)*  
Current line of treatment
 Treatment naive
  1st-line DMT 0.259 (0.071)***   10.778 (4.785)**   1.709 (5.970)  
  2nd-line DMT 0.115 (0.069)   4.477 (4.677)   1.259 (5.844)  
  Treatment experience but currently no DMT 0.127 (0.077)*   4.857 (5.137)   3.450 (6.429)  
  1. PHCS Physical health composite score, MHCS Mental health composite score, CIS Clinically isolated syndrome, RRMS Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, PPMS Primary progressive multiple sclerosis SPMS Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, EDSS Expanded Disability Status Scale, DMT Disease modifying therapy. a Results show the regression with utility calculated using the country-specific tariffs. The multivariate regression was re-run calculating the utility with only the Dutch tariffs; country of residence was no longer a significant variable (Additional file 1 Table A3)
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1 Standard errors are in parenthesis