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Table 3 Weibull gamma shared frailty model for the predictors of early initiation of PNC service utilization in Ethiopia, 2016

From: Time to early initiation of postnatal care service utilization and its predictors among women who gave births in the last 2 years in Ethiopia: a shared frailty model

Variables PNC Crude Hazard Ratio (CHR) with 95% CI Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) with 95% CI
No Yes
Residence
 Urban 196 135 1 1
 Rural 5323 710 0.23 [0.13, 0.35] 1.06 [0.76, 1.46]
Maternal age
 15–24 1332 253 1 1
 25–34 2738 425 0.83 [0.70, 0.97] 0.98 [0.81, 1.20]
  ≥ 35 1450 166 0.66 [0.54, 0.81] 0.87 [0.65, 1.17]
Maternal education status
 No 3863 403 1 1
 Primary 1482 319 1.77 [1.51, 2.07] 1.04 [0.88, 1.25]
 Secondary or higher 174 122 3.62 [2.85, 4.60] 1.04 [0.79, 1.39]
Wealth status
 Poorest 1429 114 1 1
 Poorer 1382 166 1.34 [1.04, 1.74] 0.96 [0.75, 1.24]
 Middle 1245 197 1.65 [1.28, 2.14] 1.17 [0.75, 1.56]
 Richer 1055 160 1.64 [1.25, 2.16] 0.91 [0.69, 1.19]
 Richest 408 208 3.56 [2.68, 4.73] 1.20 [0.88, 1.65]
Sex of household
 Male 5448 1025 1 1
 Female 866 250 1.23 [1.06, 1.43] 1.02 [0.83, 1.25]
Type of birth
 Single 6235 1235 1 1
 Twin 78 41 2.21 [1.58, 3.09] 2.05 [1.32, 3.18] *
Parity
 1 887 210 1 1
 2–4 2220 374 0.79 [0.66, 0.95] 1.52 [1.23, 1.87]*
  ≥ 5 2412 261 0.59 [0.49, 0.72] 1.61 [1.21, 2.15]*
Birth interval
  < 2 years 919 79 1 1
  ≥ 2 years 4600 765 1.69 [1.33, 2.15] 1.35 [1.06, 1.73] *
Husband education
 No 2674 293 1 1
 Primary 2077 316 1.21 [1.02, 1.44] 0.89 [0.75, 1.06]
 Secondary and above 768 236 2.01 [1.66, 2.44] 1.17 [0.93, 1.47]
Media exposure
 No 4026 428 1 1
 Yes 1494 417 1.96 [1.68, 2.28] 1.42 [1.21, 1.68]*
Healthcare access
 No big problem 1083 428 1 1
 A big problem 4436 417 0.54 [0.47, 0.62] 0.74 [0.63, 0.87] *
Women’s decision making autonomy
 Respondent alone 640 128 1.19 [1.01, 1.42] 0.97 [0.75, 1.06]
 Jointly with partner 3404 525 1.12 [0.88, 1.42] 0.97 [0.76, 1.24]
 Partner only 1476 191 1 1
Birth outcome
 Alive 5056 762 1 1
 Stillbirth 463 82 1.14 [0.90, 1.44] 1.09 [0.86, 1.39]
Place of delivery
 Home 4597 148 1 1
 Health facility 922 696 19.66 [16.33, 23.68] 14.36 [11.76, 17.53] *
Mode of delivery
 SVD 5497 789 1 1
 Caesarean delivery 22 56 6.15 [4.47, 8.47] 2.17 [1.60, 2.95] *
ANC visit
 No 2515 91 1 1
 Yes 3004 753 4.81 [3.82, 6.05] 2.07 [1.63, 2.63] *