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Table 6 Association between adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress among the participants May to July 2018, Nsukka, Nigeria

From: Adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress among higher education students in Southeast Nigeria: an institutional-based cross-sectional study

  Psychological distress    
Presence ORAbsence
n(%) n(%) 95% CI P-value  
ACEs
aHousehold dysfunction
  No 72 (52.2) 66 (47.8) 1.38 0.76 2.50 0.297
  Yes 39 (60.0) 26 (40.0)     
bSexual abuse
  No 34 (36.2) 60 (63.8) 4.25 2.36 7.65 < 0.0001
  Yes 77 (70.6) 32 (29.4)     
cEmotional abuse
  No 26 (44.1) 33 (55.9) 1.83 0.99 3.37 0.053
  Yes 85 (59.0) 59 (41.0)     
dPhysical abuse
  No 24 (48.0) 26 (52.0) 1.43 0.75 2.71 0.276
  Yes 87 (56.9) 66 (43.1)     
eEmotional neglect
  No 106 (55.2) 86 (44.8) 0.68 0.20 2.29 0.530
  Yes 5 (45.5) 6 (54.5)     
fPhysical neglect
  No 60 (45.8) 71 (54.2) 2.87 1.57 5.31 0.001
  Yes 51 (70.8) 21 (29.2)     
gACEs Exposure
  No 5 (18.5) 22 (81.5) 6.66 2.41 18.42 <  0.0001
  Yes 106 (60.2) 70 (39.8)     
 ACE count
  0 (ref) 5 (18.5) 22 (81.5)     
  1 15 (50.0) 15 (50.0) 4.40 1.32 14.70 0.016
  2–3 30 (48.4) 32 (51.6) 4.13 1.39 12.29 0.011
  4+ 61 (72.6) 23 (27.4) 11.67 3.95 34.47 < 0.0001
  1. Note. ACEs adverse childhood experiences, OR odds ratio; 95% CI 95% confidence intervals
  2. aNo is the reference category
  3. bNo is the reference category
  4. cNo is the reference category
  5. dNo is the reference category
  6. eNo, reference category
  7. fNo, reference category
  8. gNo/Absence of any adverse events, reference category
  9. ***p-value < 0.0001. **p-value < 0.01. *p-value < 0.05