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Table 1 Background characteristics and early ANC attendance among women in PNG

From: Factors associated with early antenatal care attendance among women in Papua New Guinea: a population‐based cross‐sectional study

Variable N=4,274 Early ANC attendance
Frequency Percentage No (%)
3306(77.0%)
Yes (%)
968(23%)
Age ( χ 2 =13.3, p =0.038)
 15-19 156 3.6 77.6 22.5
 20-24 969 22.7 75.2 24.8
 25-29 1,156 27.0 78.9 21.1
 30-34 906 21.2 81.7 18.3
 35-39 658 15.4 78.5 21.5
 40-44 340 8.0 79.5 20.5
 45-49 89 2.1 83.9 16.1
Wealth ( χ 2 =14.0, p =0.007)
 Poorest 641 15.0 74.7 25.4
 Poorer 787 18.4 76.0 24.0
 Middle 881 20.6 78.5 21.5
 Richer 947 22.2 81.6 18.4
 Richest 1,018 23.8 79.6 20.4
Working ( χ 2 =9.1, p =0.003)
 Not working 2,746 64.3 80.3 19.7
 Working 1,528 35.7 76.5 23.5
Education ( χ 2 =16.9, p =0.001)
 No education 757 17.7 74.2 25.9
 Primary 2,189 51.2 80.0 20.0
 Secondary 1091 25.5 80.1 19.9
Higher 237 5.5 72.3 27.8
Partner Education ( χ 2 =7.30, p =0.063)
 No education 663 15.5 75.8 24.2
 Primary 1,774 41.5 79.5 20.5
 Secondary 1,396 32.7 80.0 20.1
 Higher 441 10.3 75.6 24.4
Marital status ( χ 2 =0.83, p =0.362)
 Married 3,570 83.5 78.6 21.4
 Cohabiting 704 16.5 80.1 19.9
Region ( χ 2 =66.7, p <0.001)
 Southern region 922 21.6 76.7 23.3
 Highlands region 1,579 37.0 73.4 26.7
 Momase region 1,082 25.3 78.1 21.9
 Islands region 690 16.2 86.9 13.1
Residence ( χ 2 =1.2, p =0.278)
 Urban 555 13.0 80.0 20.1
 Rural 3,719 87.0 78.4 21.6
Parity ( χ 2 =20.0, p <0.001)
 1 1,034 24.2 75.3 24.7
 2 903 21.1 76.7 23.4
 3 781 18.3 83.0 17.0
 4+ 1,556 36.4 80.2 19.8
Pregnancy intention ( χ 2 =1.4, p =0.490)
 Planned 3,001 70.2 79.3 20.8
 Mistimed 526 12.3 77.0 23.0
 Unwanted 747 17.5 78.4 21.6
Permission to go to hospital ( χ 2 =0.6, p =0.453)
 Big problem 1,210 28.3 79.6 20.4
 Not a big problem 3,064 71.7 78.5 21.5
Getting money needed for treatment ( χ 2 =2.10, p =0.147)
 Big problem 2,521 59.0 78.0 22.0
 Not a big problem 1,753 41.0 79.9 20.1
Distance to health facility ( χ 2 =2.44, p =0.118)
 Big problem 2,275 53.2 77.8 22.2
 Not a big problem 1,999 46.8 79.8 20.2
Decision maker on healthcare ( χ 2 =0.0, p =1.00)
 Not alone 2,996 70.1 78.8 21.2
 Alone 1,278 29.9 78.8 21.2
Frequency of reading newspaper or magazine ( χ 2 =7.4, p =0.025)
 Not at all 2,566 60.0 77.8 22.2
 Less than once a week 930 21.8 81.9 18.1
 At least once a week 778 18.2 78.1 21.9
Frequency of listening to radio ( χ 2 =4.5, p =0.106)
 Not at all 2,622 61.3 79.3 20.7
 Less than once a week 870 20.4 80.0 20.0
 At least once a week 782 18.3 76.2 23.8
Frequency of watching television ( χ 2 =1.8, p =0.413)
 Not at all 3,188 74.6 79.3 20.7
 Less than once a week 439 10.3 77.8 22.2
 At least once a week 647 15.1 77.3 22.8
Sex of household head ( χ 2 =0.2, p =0.670)
 Male 3,669 85.8 78.7 21.3
 Female 605 14.2 79.5 20.5
  1. Source: 2016-18 PNG DHS