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Table 1 Distribution of participants by factors affecting use of maternal health services during pregnancy and birth among women of reproductive age in Jordan using the 2017–18 Jordan DHS (N = 4656)

From: Health insurance coverage and maternal healthcare services utilization in Jordan: evidence from the 2017–18 Jordan demographic and health survey

Variables Timing of the first ANC visit   Completed recommended number of ANC visits Birth attended by a skilled worker
No Yes P-value No Yes P-value No Yes P-value
N % N % N % N % N % N %
Health Insurance coverage
 No 284 15.9 1496 84.1 *** 449 25.3 1330 74.8   127 7.1 1653 92.9 ***
 Yes 296 10.3 2580 89.7 628 21.9 2248 78.2 343 11.9 2533 88.1
Education
 No education 12 18.8 52 81.2 *** 26 40.8 38 59.3 *** 9 13.4 56 86.6 ***
 Primary 45 14.7 264 85.3 121 39.2 188 60.8 37 11.9 272 88.1
 Secondary 355 14.5 2089 85.5 629 25.8 1814 74.3 284 11.6 2160 88.4
 Post-secondary 168 9.1 1671 90.9 301 16.4 1538 83.6 140 7.6 1699 92.4
Age groups
 15–19 13 8.8 139 91.2 * 41 27.1 111 72.9   27 17.8 126 82.2  
 20–24 112 13.5 718 86.5 200 24.1 629 75.9 88 10.6 742 89.4
 25–29 129 9.6 1211 90.4 319 23.8 1020 76.2 125 9.3 1215 90.7
 30–34 158 13.4 1018 86.6 246 20.9 930 79.1 116 9.9 1060 90.1
 35–39 117 14.4 700 85.6 185 22.6 633 77.4 87 10.6 731 89.4
 40–44 49 16.0 257 84.0 78 25.6 227 74.4 25 8.0 281 92.0
 45–49 2 4.8 32 95.2 8 22.7 26 77.3 1 4.3 32 95.7
Occupation
 Not working 525 12.8 3572 87.2   986 24.1 3112 75.9 ** 434 10.6 3664 89.4 **
 Working 54 9.8 504 90.2 92 16.4 466 83.6 36 6.4 523 93.6
Marital status
 Married 578 12.5 4036 87.5   1061 23.0 3554 77.0 ** 466 10.1 4149 89.9 ***
 Single 2 5.1 39 94.9 17 41.1 24 58.9 4 9.3 38 90.7
Area of Residence
 Urban 538 13.1 3573 86.9   923 22.5 3188 77.6 0.120 371 9.0 3740 91.0 ***
 Rural 42 7.6 503 92.4 155 28.5 390 71.6 98 18.1 446 81.9
Wealth Index
 Poorest 146 12.1 1065 87.9   408 33.7 803 66.3 *** 204 16.8 1007 83.2 ***
 Poorer 152 13.8 945 86.2 278 25.3 818 74.7 131 12.0 965 88.0
 Middle 133 12.5 929 87.5 199 18.8 863 81.2 89 8.4 972 91.6
 Richer 93 11.4 726 88.6 140 17.1 679 82.9 35 4.2 785 95.8
 Richest 56 12.0 412 88.0 53 11.3 415 88.7 10 2.2 4186 89.9
Number of Births in the last 5 years
 One birth 276 11.2 2198 88.8 *** 525 21.2 1949 78.8 *** 199 8.0 2275 92.0 ***
 Two or more 304 13.9 1878 86.1 553 25.4 1629 74.7 270 12.4 1912 87.6
Region
 Amman 304 18.4 1345 81.6 *** 262 15.9 1387 84.1 *** 68 4.1 1581 95.9 ***
 Balga 25 10.9 204 89.1 52 22.8 177 77.2 5 2.3 224 97.7
 Zarqua 70 11.3 551 88.7 148 23.9 472 76.1 46 7.4 575 92.6
 Madaba 29 23.5 94 76.5 24 19.4 99 80.6 24 19.6 99 80.4
 Irbid 66 7.0 871 93.0 232 24.8 704 75.2 124 13.2 813 86.8
 Mafraq 34 9.3 335 90.8 138 37.5 231 62.5 92 24.8 277 75.2
 Jerash 15 8.7 152 91.3 48 29.0 118 71.0 34 20.3 133 79.7
 Aljoun 4 3.6 119 96.4 29 23.7 94 76.3 25 20.0 99 80.0
 Karak 11 7.2 147 92.8 47 29.8 111 70.2 21 13.2 137 86.9
 Tafilh 6 7.6 73 92.4 21 26.2 58 73.8 5 6.2 74 93.8
 Ma’an 10 12.0 73 88.0 32 38.1 51 61.9 12 14.8 71 85.2
 Aquaba 6 4.8 113 95.2 44 36.7 75 63.3 15 12.4 104 87.6
 National 580 12.5 4076 87.6   1078 23.2 3578 76.9   469 10.1 4186 89.9  
  1. Here *, ** and *** indicate p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively