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Table 1 Individual and community-level characteristics of female adolescents in Ethiopia (n = 3172)

From: Associations of early marriage and early childbearing with anemia among adolescent girls in Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis of nationwide survey

  Frequency % Anemia
No Yes
Individual-level Characteristics(n = 3172)
 Marital status
  Never married 2445 77.0 78.32 21.9**
  Married 727 23.0 69.05 30.9
 Religion
  Orthodox 1310 41.3 84.4 15.6**
  Muslim 1255 39.5 66.9 33.1
  Protestant 568 17.9 78.4 21.6
  Others 39 1.2 69.2 30.8
 Place of residence
  Urban 1105 34.8 81.4 18.6*
  Rural 2067 65.2 73.4 26.6
 Level of education
  No Education 504 15.9 60.91 39.1*
  Primary education 1859 58.9 77.1 22.9
  Secondary and higher education 809 25.5 83.6 16.4
 Adolescent’s employment
  No 2389 75.3 75.0 25.0*
  Yes 783 24.7 80.0 20.0
 Wealth Index
  Poorer 715 22.5 61.7 38.3*
  Poor 379 12.0 77.3 22.7
  Middle 435 13.7 78.2 21.8
  Rich 457 14.4 81.2 18.8
  Richest 1186 37.4 82.0 18.0
 Currently pregnant
  No 3065 96.6 76.7 23.3*
  Yes 107 3.4 61.9 38.3
 Currently breastfeeding
  No 2944 92.8 76.8 23.2*
  Yes 228 7.2 68.4 31.6
 Early childbearing
  No 2841 89.6 77.5 22.5**
  Yes 331 10.4 65.3 34.7
 Current use of contraceptive
  No 2972 93.7 75.8 24.2*
  Yes 200 6.3 82.5 17.5
 Nutritional status (BMI)
   < 18.5(underweight) 1005 31.7 71.1 28.9**
  18.5–24.9 (normal weight) 2023 63.8 78.8 21.2
   ≥ 25 (overweight) 144 4.6 75.0 25.0
 Visiting health facility in the last 12 months
  No 2338 73.7 76.3 23.7
  Yes 834 26.3 75.9 24.1
Community-level characteristics(n = 645)
 % of married adolescents in the community
  Low 396 61.4 79.1 20.9**
  High 249 38.6 71.9 28.1
 % of adolescents who had childbearing history in the community
  Low 418 64.8 78.6 21.4**
  High 227 35.3 72.5 27.5
 % of adolescents with secondary and higher education in the community
  Low 286 44.3 73.2 26.8**
  High 359 55.7 78.8 21.1
 % of adolescents who use contraceptive in the community
  Low 489 75.8 73.5 26.5**
  High 156 24.2 85.0 15
Outcome variable (Anemia)
 No anemia 2417 76.2   
 Anemia 755 23.8 (95% CI; 22.3–25.2)   
  1. **P < 0.001, p < 0.05; Data source EDHS, 2016