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Table 3 Multilevel logistic regression

From: Associations of early marriage and early childbearing with anemia among adolescent girls in Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis of nationwide survey

Variables Empty model Model with individual level variables AOR(95%CI) Model with the community level variable AOR(95%CI) Model with individual and community-level variables AOR(95%CI)
Individual -level characteristics(n = 3172)
 Marital status
  Never married   Ref.   Ref.
  Married   1.54 (1.07–2.22)*   1.53 (1.06–2.20)*
 Religion
  Orthodox   Ref.   Ref.
  Muslim   2.85 (1.79–4.52)*   2.51 (1.56–4.01)*
  Protestant   1.40 (0.84–2.31)   1.36 (0.81–2.25)
  Others   7.68 (2.59–21.85)*   7.08 (0.88–19.02)
 Place of residence
  Urban   Ref.   Ref.
  Rural   0.86 (0.44–1.81)   1.03 (0.46–2.27)
 Wealth Index
  Poorer   Ref.   Ref.
  Poor   0.87 (0.64–1.19)   0.90 (0.66–1.22)
  Middle   0.92 (0.66–1.27)   0.95 (0.69–1.32)
  Rich   0.79 (0.56–1.12)   0.84 (0.59–1.18)
  Richest   0.87 (0.57–0.98)*   0.91 (0.60–1.39)
 Level of education
  No Education   Ref.   Ref.
  Primary education   0.45 (0.34–0.65)*   0.48 (0.33–0.71)*
  Secondary and higher education   0.21 (0.13–0.34)*   0.22 (0.13–0.35)*
 Employment
  No   Ref.   Ref.
  Yes   0.85 (0.72–0.99)*   0.85 (0.72–1.01)
 Currently pregnant
  No   Ref.   Ref.
  Yes   1.03 (0.76–1.40)   1.03 (0.76–1.40)
 Currently breastfeeding
  No   Ref.   
  Yes   0.89 (0.74–0.97)*   0.89 (0.74–1.08)
 Early childbearing
  No   Ref.   Ref.
  Yes   1.22 (0.77–1.95)   1.12 (0.70–1.80)
 Current use of contraceptive
  No   Ref.   
  Yes   0.47 (0.26–0.85)*   0.57 (0.32–1.04)
 Nutritional status (BMI)
   < 18.5   Ref.   Ref.
  18.5–24.9   0.56 (0.44–0.33)*   0.58 (0.45–0.75)*
   ≥ 25   0.38 (0.21–0.69)*   0.43 (0.32.0.54)*
 Visiting health facility in the last 12 months
  No   Ref.   Ref.
  Yes   1.15 (0.91–1.33)   1.10 (0.94–1.30)
Community-level characteristics(n = 645)
 Percentage of adolescents with secondary and higher education in the community
  Low    Ref. Ref.
  High    0.64 (0.33–1.23) 0.61 (0.31–1.19)
 Percentage of married adolescents in the community
  Low    Ref. Ref.
  High    1.52 (0.68–3.38) 0.79 (0.35–1.77)
 Percentage of adolescents who had childbearing history in the community
  Low    Ref. Ref.
  High    4.12 (1.83–5.24)* 2.8 (1.25–6.29)*
 Percentage of adolescents who used contraceptives in the community
  Low    Ref. Ref.
  High    0.16 (0.07–0.34)* 0.31 (0.14–0.69)*
Measures of variation
 ICC 0.29* 0.23* 0.25* 0.21*
 Model fit statistics     
 DIC (−2log likelihood) 7054.6 6919.68 7004.63 6904.29
  1. AOR Adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, DIC deviation information criterion, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, AIC Akaike information criterion. * Significant at P-value < 0.05