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Table 3 Rate ratios (RR) (with standard error (SE) and 95 % confidence interval (CI)) of use of health provider/service for people in treatment for substance use disorders between 2011 and 2014 versus comparators in Belgium, overall, by substance and by sex (2008–2017)

From: Use of health care services by people with substance use disorders in Belgium: a register-based cohort study

  Contacts with GPa Contacts with psychiatrist Contacts with EDa Hospital admissions
  RR SE 95 % CI RR SE 95 % CI RR SE 95 % CI RR SE 95 % CI
Overall 1.9 0.01 1.9-2.0 7.4 0.17 7.0-7.7 4.2 0.03 4.2–4.3 6.4 0.06 6.3–6.5
Opiates 2.6 0.04 2.5–2.7 6.7 0.40 5.9–7.5 3.7 0.06 3.5–3.8 4.6 0.10 4.4–4.8
Cocaine 1.8 0.03 1.7–1.8 6.5 0.40 5.7–7.4 3.6 0.07 3.5–3.8 5.0 0.12 4.8–5.3
Stimulants 1.8 0.03 1.8–1.9 7.0 0.61 5.9–8.3 3.3 0.08 3.1–3.5 5.3 0.16 5.0-5.6
Cannabis 1.6 0.02 1.6–1.6 5.6 0.30 4.9–6.3 2.8 0.05 2.7–2.8 4.9 0.10 4.7–5.1
Alcohol 1.7 0.02 1.7–1.7 7.7 0.30 7.1–8.3 5.7 0.05 5.6–5.9 7.6 0.11 7.3–7.8
Women (vs. men) 1.6 0.02 1.5–1.6 1.4 0.04 1.3–1.5 1.1 0.02 1.1–1.2 1.7 0.03 1.6–1.7
  1. aGP general practitioner, ED emergency department