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Table 2 Adjusted estimates of variables impact on COVID-19 mortalitya

From: The association between opioids, environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic indicators and COVID-19 mortality rates in the United States: an ecological study at the county level

Variables Adjusted MRRb (95% CI) P-value
Opioid Mortality Rate per 100,000 persons 1.0134 (1.0054, 1.0214) 0.001
Opioid Prescribing Rate per 100 persons 1.0005 (0.9979, 1.0031) 0.69
Ratio of ≥65 years old to < 25 years old 1.0564 (0.8082, 1.3809) 0.69
% Black 1.0323 (1.0255, 1.0390) < 0.001
% Non-Hispanic White 0.9828 (0.9767, 0.9889) < 0.001
% Rural 0.9951 (0.9917, 0.9986) 0.01
log (Median Household Income) 6.2034 (3.5170, 10.9419) < 0.001
log (Median Home Value) 0.7907 (0.6062, 1.0332) 0.09
Population Density (persons/100 mile2) 1.0050 (1.0019, 1.0082) 0.002
% Unemployed 1.0591 (1.0008, 1.1208) 0.047
% Diabetic 1.0414 (0.9948, 1.0904) 0.08
Hypertension Hospitalizations Rate 1.0095 (0.9834, 1.0362) 0.48
% Smokers 1.0030 (0.9708, 1.0363) 0.85
% Excessive Drinking 1.0136 (0.9832, 1.0450) 0.38
% With access to place of physical activity 0.9986 (0.9942, 1.0030) 0.53
% Health practitioners 1.0249 (0.9808, 1.0709) 0.27
% Sales/office workers 1.0083 (0.9797, 1.0379) 0.57
% Transportation/trucking workers 1.0178 (0.9996, 1.0363) 0.055
% Education workers 0.9933 (0.9608, 1.0269) 0.69
Average maximum temperature (°F) 0.9784 (0.9682, 0.9889) < 0.001
Average Daily PM2.5 (μg/m3) 1.0695 (1.0194, 1.220) 0.01
  1. a Negative binomial regression model, R2: 0.79, Chi-squared Goodness of Fit p-value: 0.70; b Mortality rate ratio