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Table 1 Age-standardized percentages of childhood and adulthood socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators and pathway variables by occupational class for men aged 35–64: The 2007–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 4176; weighted n = 10,528,165)

From: Analysis of factors contributing to occupational health inequality in Korea: a cross-sectional study using nationally representative survey data

  Upper Non-manual Lower Non-manual Manual Others
%c (n)d 95% CI % (n) 95% CI % (n) 95% CI % (n) 95% CI
Childhood SEP Parents’ education level
 Father’s education (elementary school or less) 43.2 (304) 38.8–47.7 52.2 (494) 48.6–55.7 59.1 (822) 56.3–62.0 56.2 (628) 51.9–60.5
 Mother’s education (elementary school or less) 62.5 (456) 58.6–66.3 68.0 (662) 64.6–71.4 72.6 (1023) 69.9–75.3 70.8 (739) 66.5–75.0
Parents’ economic activity
 Absence of parents 10.3 (65) 7.5–13.0 11.6 (105) 9.2–14.1 13.9 (190) 11.9–15.9 13.3 (157) 10.5–16.1
Adulthood SEP Education level
 Elementary school or less 2.8 (21) 1.4–4.3 4.3 (45) 2.9–5.8 18.5 (270) 16.2–20.7 27.3 (289) 24.0–30.6
 Middle school 1.4 (9) 0.4–2.3 8.8 (85) 6.8–10.7 21.0 (297) 18.5–23.5 22.4 (229) 19.3–25.5
 High school 23.8 (169) 20.0–27.6 38.3 (383) 34.8–41.8 48.4 (658) 45.3–51.5 33.3 (290) 29.6–37.1
 College or above 72.0 (554) 68.0–76.0 48.6 (491) 44.9–52.4 12.2 (166) 10.3–14.0 17.0 (145) 13.6–20.3
Biological health risk factors Body mass index (BMI) (≥30 kg/m2) 4.1 (33) 2.7–5.5 2.9 (31) 1.8–4.1 2.7 (34) 1.7–3.7 4.2 (28) 2.0–6.5
BMI (≤18 kg/m2) 2.1 (17) 1.1–3.2 2.3 (27) 1.3–3.2 3.4 (50) 2.3–4.4 5.8 (53) 3.7–7.9
Blood pressure (≥140 mmHg) 5.0 (36) 3.2–6.8 7.1 (58) 5.0–9.1 10.3 (140) 8.5–12.1 11.9 (131) 8.9–15.0
Serum total cholesterol (≥240 mg/dL) 7.6 (64) 5.6–9.7 6.9 (76) 5.3–8.5 8.7 (117) 6.9–10.6 8.0 (79) 5.8–10.3
Serum glucose level (≥126 mg/dL) 8.0 (54) 5.8–10.2 8.1 (72) 5.9–10.3 9.1 (125) 7.3–10.8 8.7 (91) 6.2–11.1
Health behaviors Current smoking 41.3 (319) 37.2–45.4 40.8 (444) 37.4–44.2 51.0 (686) 48.2–53.8 49.3 (411) 44.9–53.8
High-risk alcohol consumptiona 9.1 (69) 6.8–11.4 11.4 (111) 9.0–13.8 14.3 (190) 12.2–16.3 12.9 (120) 10.2–15.5
Moderate level of physical activity 9.3 (75) 7.0–11.6 11.4 (121) 9.1–13.7 17.4 (263) 15.3–19.6 13.3 (160) 10.4–16.2
Exercise for weight control 52.2 (392) 48.3–56.2 45.8 (466) 42.2–49.3 34.5 (484) 31.6–37.3 35.9 (324) 31.5–40.4
Psychosocial factors Feelings of depression (more than 2 weeks) 9.3 (74) 7.1–11.6 9.5 (92) 7.4–11.7 9.8 (143) 8.2–11.3 16.2 (140) 12.8–19.6
Stress awareness 31.8 (255) 28.2–35.4 30.6 (343) 27.5–33.6 23.3 (332) 20.8–25.9 23.4 (195) 19.4–27.5
Marital status (yes) 97.6 (732) 96.7–98.6 97.7 (974) 96.8–98.6 94.9 (1318) 93.6–96.2 81.8 (876) 77.9–85.6
Suicidal ideation 7.3 (60) 5.4–9.3 10.1 (92) 7.6–12.5 10.8 (153) 9.0–12.5 18.7 (159) 15.0–22.4
Work environment b Cleanliness and comfort 88.4 (666) 85.6–91.2 85.8 (866) 83.2–88.4 54.9 (784) 52.1–57.7 34.6 (361) 30.2–38.9
Dangerous 18.5 (140) 15.3–21.8 18.3 (199) 15.6–21.1 62.7 (867) 59.7–65.7 23.4 (238) 19.6–27.3
Time pressure 36.9 (296) 33.2–40.5 35.9 (393) 32.6–39.2 36.5 (505) 33.8–39.1 25.1 (257) 21.0–29.1
Authority 95.2 (718) 93.5–96.9 89.1 (897) 86.7–91.5 68.4 (960) 65.6–71.1 46.8 (472) 41.3–52.2
Respected and trusted 92.4 (697) 90.1–94.7 91.8 (924) 89.8–93.8 85.7 (1188) 83.7–87.7 47.1 (489) 41.7–52.6
Long hours in an uncomfortable position 9.4 (80) 7.4–11.5 16.4 (156) 13.7–19.1 36.7 (522) 33.9–39.5 22.7 (251) 18.2–27.2
Carrying heavy objects 7.8 (58) 5.6–10.0 22.7 (207) 19.5–25.8 39.7 (560) 36.5–42.8 25.5 (290) 21.5–29.5
Hiding emotions 34.2 (272) 30.4–38.0 35.8 (379) 32.4–39.2 37.9 (529) 35.1–40.8 16.7 (144) 13.2–20.2
  1. aDrinking more than seven drinks per day on average almost every day in the past year
  2. bThe proportion of those who responded “agree” or higher for each question about their working environment (strongly disagree = 1, disagree = 2, agree = 3, strongly agree = 4)
  3. cAge-standardized prevalence percentage calculated based on the weighted frequencies
  4. dSub-sample population size without applying weight