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Table 2 Descriptive data on psychosocial risks and substance abuse

From: Pregnancy complications, substance abuse, and prenatal care predict birthweight in adolescent mothers

  Adolescent group
n = 63
Adult group
n = 35
t/X² p-value Larger cohort studies
Psychosocial risk
Socioeconomic risk score 1.58 ± 0.89 0.17 ± 0.51 9.6 < 0.001  
Stressful life events (any) 90.5 % 60 % 12.9 .001  
  Number of stressful life events 2.9 ± 1.57 1.43 ± 1.27 4.8 < 0.001  
  Death of family member or loved one 20.6 % 14.3 %    
  Severe own illness 11.1 % 2.9 %    
  Severe illness family member 12.7 % 14.3 %    
  Breakup of relationship 31.7 % 5.7 %    
  Loss of job/apprenticeship 15.9 % 2.9 %    3.45–3.72 %3
  Severe changes in social environment 39.7 % 8.6 %    3.45–3.72 %3
  Relocation 81.0 % 34.3 %    
Planned pregnancy 17.5 % 82.9 % 39.8 < 0.001  
Substance abuse during pregnancy (any) 46 % 5.7 % 16.9 < 0.001  
Substance dose score 1.08 ± 1.32 0.11 ± 0.47 5.2 < 0.001  
Alcohol 3.1 % 0 %    15.3–19.4 %1 0.2 %2
glasses/week
  0 96.8 % 100 %    
  1–3 1.6 % -    
  4–6 1.6 % -    
  ≥ 7 - -    
  Cannabis 1.6 % 0 %    3.85 %4
joints/month
  0 98.4 % 100 %    
  1–4 - -    
  5–8 1.6 % -    
  ≥ 9 - -    
  Nicotine 45.3 % 5.7 %    6.5–9.2 %1, 7.0 %2
cigarettes/day
  0 54.0 % 94.3 %    
  1–4 9.5 % -    
  5–9 23.8 % 5.7 %    
  10–14 7.9 % -    
  ≥ 15 4.8 % -    
  Other drugs 0 % 0 %    
  1. 1Rebhan et al., 2009: Based on 3,069 German mothers (> 18years) [27] 2Leppalahti et al., 2013: Based on 51,142 Finish mothers aged 25–29 years[7] 3IQTIG Institute for Quality Assurance and Transparency in Health Care, federal evaluation for the year of registration 2017 - obstetrics, based on 761,481 German mothers [29] 4Saurel-Cubizolles et al., 2014: based on 8,620 French mothers aged 25–34 years [34]